ANGIOSPERM LIFE CYCLE (FLOWERING PLANTS)

1.    SEED GERMINATES, BECOMING A YOUNG SPOROPHYTE
2. FLOWERS FORM ON THE SPOROPHYTE
            a. POLLEN PRODUCED IN ANTHER SACS (GAMETOPHYTE
        GENERATION)
                   i. MICROSPORE MOTHER CELLS UNDERGO MEIOSIS
           TO FORM
MICROSPORES (POLLEN)
                 ii. POLLEN CONTAINS A GENERATIVE CELL AND A
           TUBE CELL
              iii. GENERATIVE CELL DIVIDES BY MITOSIS TO
           PRODUCE TWO SPERM
            b. EGGS FORM IN THE OVARY (GAMETOPHYTE
        GENERATION)
3. SPERM TRANSFERRED TO THE FEMALE PORTION OF THE
   FLOWER (POLLINATION)
4. SPERM AND EGG FUSE (FERTILIZATION)
5. EMBRYO DEVELOPS
6. MATURE SEED RESULTS

CHAPTER 17 - REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

FLOWERS

COMPOSED OF:

1. SEPALS
                                 STERILE
2. PETALS

3. STAMENS
                                 FERTILE
4. PISTILS

FLOWERS HAVING ALL FOUR FLORAL WHORLS ARE COMPLETE
FLOWERS LACKING ONE OR MORE FLORAL WHORLS ARE
   INCOMPLETE
FLOWERS WITH BOTH FERTILE WHORLS ARE PERFECT
FLOWERS MISSING ONE OR BOTH FERTILE WHORLS ARE
   IMPERECT

A FLOWER CAN BE:

1. COMPLETE AND PERFECT
2. INCOMPLETE AND PERFECT
3. INCOMPLETE AND IMPERFECT

A FLOWER CANNOT BE:

1. COMPLETE AND IMPERFECT

STAMENS

EACH STAMEN IS MADE UP OF A:

1. FILAMENT
       a. ELEVATES ANTHER
2. ANTHER
       a. SITE OF POLLEN PRODUCTION

ALL THE STAMENS IN A FLOWER ARE CALLED THE ANDROECIUM

PISTILS

CONSIST OF AN OVARY, STYLE AND STIGMA

1. OVARY - MADE UP OF OVULE BEARING UNITS CALLED
   CARPELS (ALL THE CARPELS
TOGETHER ARE THE
   GYNOECIUM)

   OVULES ARE FOUND IN THE OVARY ATTACHED BY THE
   PLACENTA

2. STIGMA - STICKY SURFACE TO WHICH POLLEN ATTACHES

   MAY BE KNOB-SHAPED OR BRANCHED

3. STYLE - CONNECTS THE STIGMA TO THE OVARY

PETALS

ALL THE PETALS OF A FLOWER ARE CALLED THE COROLLA
COROLLA SHAPE, COLOR AND ODOR
MAY INFLUENCE POLLINATORS

RADIAL SYMMETRY - ALL PETALS RADIATE OUT EQUALLY FROM A CENTRAL POINT

BILATERAL SYMMETRY - PETALS RADIATE OUT UNEQUALLY

SEPALS

ALL SEPALS TOGETHER ARE CALLED A CALYX

MAY RESEMBLE PETALS WHEN PETALS AND SEPALS ARE IN-
DISTINGUISHABLE THEY ARE CALLED TEPALS

SEPALS FUNCTION TO:

1. PROTECT THE DEVELOPING BUD FROM:
       a. PREDATION
       b. DESICCATION

2. ATTRACT POLLINATORS

POLLEN DEVELOPMENT

POLLEN GRAINS DEVELOPE FROM MICROSPORES THAT ARISE BY MEIOSIS IN THE ANTHER

LAYER OF STERILE CELLS CALLED THE TAPETUM SURROUND THE INNERMOST LAYER OF THE POLLEN SAC TO NOURISH THE DEVELOPING POLLEN

THE POLLEN GRAIN CONSISTS OF TWO CELLS:
       a. TUBE CELL
       b. GENERATIVE CELL

1. DIVIDES TO FORM TWO SPERM CELLS

 DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMBRYO SAC

   DEVELOPS INSIDE THE OVULE

       1. MEGASPORE MOTHER CELL PRODUCES FOUR
      MEGASPORES DURING MEIOSIS

      a. THREE MEGASPORES DEGENERATE
               b. ONE MEGASPORE IS FUNCTIONAL

                      1. NUCLEUS DIVDES 3 TIMES GIVING 8 FREE
                             NUCLEI

                             a. THREE NEAR THE MICROPYLE FORM THE
               EGG APPARATUS (ONE EGG AND TWO
                                      SYNERGIDS)

            b. THREE NEAR THE OTHER END ARE THE
               ANTIPODALS

                             C. TWO IN THE MIDDLE ARE POLAR NUCLEI

                     2. ONE SPERM FUSES WITH THE EGG TO FORM A
            DIPLOID EMBRYO

        3. ONE SPERM FUSES WITH THE TWO POLAR
           NUCLEI TO FORM A TRIPLOID (3N) ENDOSPERM