RFLP AND DNA FINGERPRINTING

        1. OBTAIN DNA (FROM CRIME SCENE)
        2. CUT WITH RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES (COME
      FROM BACTERIA)
        3. SUBJECT FRAGMENTS TO GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
               a. LARGE FRAGMENTS MOVE SLOWLY
               b. SMALL FRAGMENTS MOVE RAPIDLY
       4. GEL USED FOR A SOUTHERN BLOT

               SOUTHERN BLOT TRANSFERS DNA FROM GEL ONTO A   
               NITROCELLULOSE MEMBRANE

               MEMBRANE PUT IN A BUFFER SOLUTION WITH A
               LABELLED PROBE

               THE PROBE HYBRIDIZES WITH THE DNA

*******************************************************

1. REPEAT ABOVE WITH OTHER SOURCES OF DNA

2. COMPARE RESTRICTION FRAGMENT PATTERNS WITH
        CRIME SCENE DNA

        THE DIFFERENCES IN FRAGMENTS SEEN ARE RFLP’S OR
        RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS

        EACH ORGANISM IS A UNIQUE DNA FINGERPRINT AS
   SEEN BY RFLP’S

RFLP’S ARE USED TO:

1. DETERMINE THE ANCESTORY OF MUMMIES
2. DETERMINE IDENTIFICATION OF BODIES
3. DETERMINE RELATEDNESS OF SPECIES
4. DETERMINE PRESENCE OF GENE SEQUENCES FOR
   DISEASES
5. DETERMINE PATERNITY AND MATERNITY
6. DETERMINE PERPETRATORS OF CRIMES

DNA AMPLIFICATION

PCR = POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

1. SEQUENCE OF DNA DESIRED IS DETERMINED
2. PRIMER MADE OF DNA SEQUENCE AHEAD OF AND AFTER A
   DESIRED SEQUENCE
3. DNA, PRIMERS AND DNA POLYMERASE MIXED TOGETHER
        WITH LABELLED AND UNLABELLED BASES
4. PUT IN A THERMOCYCLER
       a. TEMPERATURE RAISED TO UNWIND AND UNZIP DNA
       b. LOWER TEMPERATURE FOR BASE PAIRING
       c. RAISE TEMPERATURE TO UNWIND DNA
       d. LOWER TEMPERATURE FOR BASE PAIRING
       e. ETC.

2,4,8,16,32,64,128....

PCR FRAGMENTS CAN BE ANALYZED AND FINGERPRINTED

 

GENETIC ENGINEERING

PUTTING GENES FOR CERTAIN PROTEINS INTO ANOTHER ORGANISM

GENETICALLY ENGINEERING PLANTS
       PLANTS HAVING RESISTANCE TO DISEASE
       PLANTS PRODUCING ANIMAL PROTEINS

METHODS OF GENE TRANSFER IN PLANTS

1. INSERT A Ti PLASMID WITH THE DESIRED GENE
       SOME PLANTS CAN BE INFECTED WITH THE BACTERIUM,
       AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS

       PLASMID DNA FROM THE BACTERIUM CAN JOIN WITH THE
   PLANT CELLS DNA AND THEIR GENES EXPRESSED

   PROBLEM: ONLY CERTAIN DICOTS CAN BE INFECTED BY
   THIS BACTERIUM

2. ELECTRIC SHOCK

3. CHEMICALS

4. GENE GUN

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PLANTS

1. COLORED COTTON
2. PLANTS THAT PRODUCE PLASTIC
3. BIOLUMINESCENT TOBACCO
4. COTTON RESISTANT TO WEAVIL ATTACK
5. SLOW RIPENING TOMATO

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF ANIMALS

1. MICE
       a. SOMATOTROPIN GENE MICROINJECTED INTO A
               DWARF MOUSE EMBRYO AND IT WAS LARGER THAN
               UNINJECTED MICE

2. GOATS
      a. CFTR PROTEIN
      b. TPA

CLONING

1. NUCLEUS OF AN EGG REMOVED
2. NUCLEUS OF A MATURE CELL PUT IN EGG CELL
3. EGG IMPLANTED IN A FEMALE
4. CLONE RESULTS