DIVISION CHLOROPHYTA: THE GREEN ALGAE 

  UNICELLULAR GREEN ALGAE MOTILE AND NONMOTILE

     MOTILE CHLAMYDOMONAS

        1. 2 EQUAL FLAGELLAE
       
2. SINGLE LARGE CHLOROPLAST
           a.
HAS AT LEAST ONE LARGE PYRANOID
              SITE OF RuBisCO, SURROUNDED BY STARCH
              GRAINS
                    3. STIGMA CONTAINS THE RED PIGMENT, RHODOPSIN,
           TO PERCEIVE LIGHT
        4. REPRODUCE SEXUALLY AND ASEXUALLY

        TETRACYSTIS AND CHLORELLA ARE ALSO UNICELLULAR.
    
     NONMOBILE -
CHLORELLA
 

       COLONIAL GREEN ALGAE MOBILE AND NONMOBILE
            MOBILE VOLVOX
      1. MADE UP OF CHLAMYDOMONAS-TYPE CELLS ARRANGED AS A
       HOLLOW SPHERE
    2. CELLS ATTACHED TO EACH OTHER BY THIN CYTOPLASMIC
       THREADS

   
3. REPRODUCE SEXUALLY OR
ASEXUALLY
       a. DAUGHTER COLONIES FORM INSIDE THE SPHERE OF
          CELLS AND ARE RELEASED WHEN THE ORIGINAL
          COLONY DISINTEGRATES
       b. EGGS AND SPERM MAY DEVELOP INSTEAD OF
          DAUGHTER COLONIES

          1.  COLONIES MAY BE BISEXUAL OR UNISEXUAL

    IMMOBILE HYDRODICTYON (WATER NET)
    1. THE COLONY MAKES UP A HOLLOW CYLINDER
    2. ASEXUAL ZOOSPORES FUSE TO FORM A MINIATURE NET
    3. MINIATURE NETS BREAK OUT OF THE PARENT COLONY TO
       ESTABLISH NEW COLONIES

FILAMENTOUS GREEN ALGAE

          1. BRANCHED OR UNBRANCHED
    2. OFTEN EPIPHYTIC
    3. CAN REPRODUCE SEXUALLY OR ASEXUALLY

 
     OEDOGONIUM EGGS FORM IN
AN OOGONIUM AND SPERM
       FORM IN AN ANTHERIDIUM

       IN CLADOPHORA THE DIPLOID AND HAPLOID FILAMENTS
       APPEAR IDENTICAL

       a. DIPLOID FILAMENTS PRODUCE FLAGELLATED ZOO-
          SPORES THAT GROW IN TO HAPLOID FILAMENTS
       b. HAPLOID FILAMENTS PRODUCE BIFLAGELLATE
          ISOGAMETES THAT FUSE TO FORM A DIPLOID
          ZYGOTE

    4. SPIROGYRA UNBRANCHED
       a. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION BY CONJUGATION
          1. FILAMENTS LYING SIDE- BY-SIDE FORM PAPILLAE
          2. PAPILLAE GROW TOWARD EACH OTHER AND FUSE
          3. END WALLS DISSOLVE AND A TUBE FORMS
          4. THE CONTENTS OF ONE
CELL DUMP INTO THE
             OTHER CELL AND THE NUCLEI FUSE
          5. NUCLEUS UNDERGOES
MEIOSIS AND 4 HAPLOID
             CELLS FORM ONE GROWS INTO A HAPLOID
             FILAMENT AND THE
OTHER 3 DISINTEGRATE

 OTHER MULTICELLULAR FORMS

      ULVA SEA LETTUCE

     
1. DIPLOID AND HAPLOID
INDIVIDUALS ARE
         ISOMORPHIC
        a. SPOROPHYTE
         b. MALE GAMETOPHYTE
         c. FEMALE GAMETOPHYTE

DIVISION PHAEOPHYTA BROWN ALGAE

      1. ALMOST ALL MARINE
      2. RANGE FROM MICROSCOPIC,
BRANCHED FILAMENTS TO
                      MACROSCOPIC KELP
       3. ALL PRODUCE BIFLAGGELATE CELLS AT SOME TIME
         IN THEIR
LIFE CYCLE

       FILAMENTOUS BROWN ALGAE

   ECTOCARPUS MARINE, GROWS ON ROCKS

   KELPS AND ROCKWEEDS

   1. MULTICELLULAR, MARINE
   2. LIFE CYCLE DOMINATED BY A
LARGE SPOROPHYTE
      a. STIPES
      b. LEAVES (w/wo AIR BLADDERS)
      c. HOLDFASTS

DIVISION RHODOPHYTA

   1. MOSTLY MARINE
   2. MICROSCOPIC FILAMENTS AND LEAFT MACROSCOPIC
      BRANCHES
   3. CONTAIN PHYCOBILINS
      A. PHYCOERYTHRIN - ABSORBS BLUE LIGHT
   4. LACK FLAGELLATED CELLS

   5. CORALLINE ALGA - PART OF CORAL REEFS. HAVE
      CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CARBONATE

   UNICELLULAR RED ALGAE

   1. PORPHRIDIUM
      a. LACKS A CELL WALL
      b. HAS A STAR-SHAPED CHLOROPLAST
      c. GROWS ON MOIST SOIL IN GREENHOUSES
      d. REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL

   MULTICELLULAR RED ALGAE
  
   1. POLYSIPHONIA
      a. HAS A THREE STAGE LIFE CYCLE

DIVISION CHRYSOPHYTA

DIATOMS, GOLDEN-BROWN AND YELLOW-GREEN ALGAE

   1. LARGEST DIVISION OF ALGAE
      - DIATOMS (10,000 SPECIES)
      a. UNICELLULAR
      b. LACK FLAGELLAE
      c. HAVE A GLASS CASE

      - GOLDEN-BROWN AND YELLOW-GREEN
      a. MOST UNICELLULAR, SOME COLONIAL

   2. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION BY ISOGAMY, ANISOGAMY,
      OR OOGAMY

DIVISIONS OF UNICELLULAR ALGAE

EUGLENOPHYTA -EUGLENOIDS

   1. CHL A, B AND CAROTEIN
   2. PELLICLE INSTEAD OF CELL WALL. A
      PELLICLE IS A MEMBRANE WITH EXTRA INNER
      LAYERS OF PROTEIN

PYROPHYTA - DINOFLAGELLATES

   1. CHL C
   2. LACK A CELL WALL BUT, HAVE PLATES
      EXTERIOR TO A CELL MEMBRANE

CRYPTOPHYTA - CRYPTOMONADS

   1. CHL C, PHYCOBILINS
   2. PELLICLE INSTEAD OF A CELL WALL

ALL THREE OF THESE DIVISIONS HAVE:

   1. PLANT-LIKE AND ANIMAL-LIKE REPRESENTATIVES
   2. MAINLY REPRODUCE ASEXUALLY

ORIGIN OF ALGAE

             UNKNOWN ANCESTOR CONTAINING
                    CHLOROPHYLL A



    CHL B           PHYCOBILINS        CHL C



    LAND PLANTS                    BROWN ALGAE
    GREEN ALGAE                    CHRYSOPHYTES
    EUGLENOIDS                  DINOFLAGELLATES
                    RED ALGAE
                    CRYPTOMONADS

ECOLOGY OF ALGAE

CAN EXPLOIT MANY HABITATS
   1. MARINE
   2. FRESHWATER
   3. TERRESTRIAL
      A. WOOD
      b. ROCK
      c. SOIL
   4. UNUSUAL
      a. CLOUDS
      b. SNOWBANKS
      c. SYMBIOTICALLY WITH FUNGI IN LICHENS

** MOST IMPORTANT ROLE IN ECOSYSTEM **

   PLANKTON (UNICELLULAR ALGAE) ARE THE
   BOTTOM OF THE FOOD  CHAIN IN MARINE AND
   FRESHWATER  HABITATS

   1. PLANKTON ARE PRIMARY PRODUCERS
   2. PLANKTON ARE EATEN BY PRIMARY
      CONSUMERS
   3. PRIMARY CONSUMERS ARE EATEN BY
      SECONDARY CONSUMERS
   4. PLANKTON ALSO PRODUCE 50-70% OF
      ALL THE EARTHS OXYGEN

*******************************************

RED AND BROWN ALGAE FORM "FORESTS" THAT
SERVE AS HABITATS FOR SMALL ANIMALS

RED ALGAE ARE COMPONENTS OF CORAL REEFS

MICROSCOPIC ALGAE CAN RAPIDLY REPRODUCE TO
FORM AN ALGAL "BLOOM"

WHEN THE BLOOMS BEGIN TO DECAY, MICRO-
ORGANISMS BREAKING DOWN THE DEAD ALGAE
CONSUME LARGE AMOUNTS OF OXYGEN

FISH AND OTHER MARINE ORGANISMS DIE DUE
TO LACK OF OXYGEN  

WHEN DINOFLAGELLATES BLOOM, THEY PRODUCE A RED TIDE

   1. FISH DIE DUE TO THE PRODUCTION OF A
      NEUROTOXIN CALLED BREVETOXIN
   2. SHELLFISH EAT DINOFLAGELLATES BUT ARE IMMUNE
      TO THE TOXIN
   3. VERTEBRATES THAT EAT CONTAMINATED SHELLFISH
      CAN DIE DUE TO TOXINS IN THE SHELLFISH
   4. TOXINS IRRITATE MUCUS MEMBRANES SUCH AS
      THOSE IN EYES, THROATS, NASAL PASSAGES AND
      LUNGS