BRYOPHYTES
     DIVISION BRYOPHYTA - MOSSES
     DIVISION HEPATOPHYTA - LIVERWORTS
     DIVISION ANTHOCEROPHYTA - HORNWORTS

COMMON FEATURES OF BRYOPHYTES
     1. SMALL, COMPACT GREEN PLANTS
            2. HAVE CHLOROPHYLL a & b
            3. PRODUCE STARCH
            4. HAVE CELLULOSIC CELL WALLS
            5. HAVE MOTILE SPERM
     6. LACK VASCULAR TISSUE
     7. LACK LIGNIN
            8. LACK TRUE LEAVES AND ROOTS
     9. OBTAIN NUTRIENTS FROM DUST, RAINWATER, AND
        MINERALS AT THE SOIL SURFACE
    10. GAMETOPHYTE DOMINATES
        a. FORM GAMETES BY MITOSIS
           1. ALL GAMETES PRODUCED BY A PLANT ARE
             GENETICALLY
IDENTICAL
    11.SPOROPHYTE SHORT LIVED
        a. FORMS SPORES BY MEIOSIS
          1. ALL SPORES PRODUCED BY A PLANT ARE
             GENETICALLY
DIFFERENT

BRYOPHYTE LIFE CYCLE

1. ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS -

    GAMETOPHYTIC      (1N)
    SPOROPHYTIC     (2N)

2.  GENERATIONS ARE HETEROMORPHIC

   
HETEROMORPHIC - DISTINCTLY
DIFFERENT

THE CYCLE  

1.   1N SPORES GERMINATE
2.   A 1N PROTONEMA FORMS
3.   BUDS FORM ALONG THE PROTONEMA
4.   BUDS DEVELOPE INTO 1N
GAMETOPHYTES
5.   ANTHERIDIA AND ARCHEGONIA FORM ON THE GAMETOPHYTE

     a. SPERM FORM IN THE ANTHERIDIA
     b. EGGS FORM IN THE ARCHEGONIA
6.         SPERM AND EGG UNITE
7.   DIPLOID ZYGOTE DEVELOPES INTO A DIPLOID SPOROPHYTE
8.   SPOROPHYTE PRODUCES HAPLOID SPORES BY MEIOSIS

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SOME GAMETOPHYTES PRODUCE ONLY ANTHERIDIA
SOME GAMETOPHYTES PRODUCE ONLY ARCHEGONIA
SOME GAMETOPHYTES PRODUCE BOTH ANTHERIDIA AND ARCHEGONIA

DIVISION BRYOPHYTA - TRUE MOSSES

1.   12,000 SPECIES ~200 IN SOUTH TEXAS
2.   RANGE IN SIZE FROM 1-2 mm TO
20 cm

NOT ALL THINGS THAT ARE CALLED MOSS ARE MOSS

    
SPANISH MOSS IS RELATED TO
PINEAPPLE AND HAS FLOWERS
     BALL MOSS IS RELATED TO SPANISH MOSS
     REINDEER MOSS ARE LICHEN

MOSS CHARACTERISTICS
1.   GAMETOPHYTES RADIALLY
SYMMETRIC
2.   RHIZOIDS ARE MULTICELLULAR AND LACK CHLOROPHYLL
3.   SPORES FORM FILAMENTOUS PROTONEMA
4.   GAMETOPHYTE ALWAYS LEAFY, MIDRIB NEARLY ALWAYS PRESENT,
     LEAVES USUALLY 1 CELL THICK
5.   PARAPHYSES (STERILE FILAMENTS)
SOMETIMES PRESENT AMONG      ANTHERIDIA AND ARCHEGONIA.

DIVISION HEPATOPHYTA - LIVERWORTS

1. TWO TYPES
   a.THALLOSE
 
b.LEAFY

THALLOSE - THOUGHT BY SOME TO RESEMBLE LIVER.
“WORT” - HERB

8,500 SPECIES KNOWN

CHARACTERISTICS

1.   GAMETOPHYTE DOMINANT
2.   MAY HAVE A CUTICLE
3.   HAVE THICK WALLED SPORES
4.   BILATERAL SYMMETRY

CAN REPRODUCE ASEXUALLY
ASEXUAL STTRUCTURES ARE GEMMAE  
     GEMMAE CAN BE STAR SHAPED, OVOID OR LENS SHAPED.  
     GEMMAE FOUND IN SPLASH CUPS AND ARE DISTRIBUTED BY
     FALLING RAIN DROPS.

THE GAMETOPHYTE CAN ALSO FRAGMENT AND GROW INTO NEW PLANTS.

GAMETOPHYTE  

LEAFY - RESEMBLE MOSSES

CHARACTERISTICS
:
    1.BILATERALLY SYMMETRIC
    2.LEAVES THREE RANKED
    3.LEAVES LACK A MIDRIB
    4.LEAVES ONE CELL LAYER THICK  
    5.GAMETOPHYTE APPEARS FLATTENED

THALLOSE

CHARACTERISTICS

1.FLAT, RIBBONLIKE
2.BRANCH DICHOTOMOUSLY
3.SURFACE COVERED BY DIAMOND SHAPED PLATES
4.PLATES COVER A CHAMBER
  a. CHAMBER CONTAINS FILAMENTS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CELLS
  b.
EACH CHAMBER CONNECTED TO THE
ATMOSPHERE BY A PORE.
5.PRODUCE ANTHERIDIA AND ARCHEGONIA
  a. MALE PLANTS FORM ANTHERIDIOPHORES - 1N TISSUE

     PRODUCE ANTHERIDIA

  b. FEMALE PLANTS FORM ARCHEGONIOPHORES - 1N TISSUE

     PRODUCE ARCHEGONIA

SPOROPHYTE -

THE SPOROPHYTE IS CONTAINED WITHIN THE ARCHEGONIOPHORE AND ARE ANCHORED WITH A KNOBLIKE FOOT.

MEIOSIS OCCURS WITHIN THE CAPSULE.

ELATOR CELLS ARE FORMED WITHIN THE CAPSULE, ALSO.  ELATORS DRY AND COIL UP LIKE SPRINGS AND DISPERSE SPORES

ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF BRYOPHYTES

WHERE BRYOPHYTES GROW:

    
MOIST SOIL, ROOFTOPS, CLIFF FACES, TREE TRUNKS, BASES OF
     TREES AND BUSHES, SIDEWALK
CRACKS, PLANTERS, ON SOIL IN
     SHADE, IN DUNG.

RANGE OF DISTRIBUTION:

COMMONIST IN THE TROPICS
DESERTS
TEMPERATE FORESTS
RAIN FORESTS
ANTARCTICA

SPLACHNUM - “MAMMAL DUNG MOSS”

1.
RELEASES AN ODOR THAT ATTRACTS FLIES.
2. STICKY SPORES STICK TO FLIES.
3. FLIES GO TO OTHER DUNG PILES AND DISTRIBUTE

ECONOMIC USES OF BRYOPHYTES

1.
SPHAGNUM MOSS - USED AS WATER ABSORBING AGENT IN
   SOIL
2. PEAT - FUEL
3. TRACKERS OF RADIOACTIVITY/HEAVY METALS
4. TAMPON FILLER
5. EARLY TOILET PAPER
6. DECORATIVE
7. "LAWNS" FOR BONSAI
8. LANDSCAPING