KINGDOM FUNGI

OVERVIEW:

1. HAVE CELL WALLS

2. CANNOT PHOTOSYNTHESIZE

3. ARE HETEROTROPHIC

4. ARE SAPROPHYTIC

5. ARE COMPOSED OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS

FUNGAL FORMS

1. UNICELLULAR

a. YEAST

2. FILAMENTOUS (HYPHAE)

a. MOLDS

b. ASCOMYCETES

c. BASIDIOMYCETES

FUNGAL NUTRITION

FUNGI ARE SAPROPHYTIC – GENERALLY LIVE ON DEAD TISSUE

CAN LIVE ON TISSUE THAT IS STILL LIVING, i.e.

HUMANS – 1. RINGWORM

2. VAGINAL YEAST INFECTIONS

3. ATHLETE’S FOOT

4. HISTOPLASMOSIS

5. VALLEY FEVER

PLANTS - 1. POTATO BLIGHT

2. SMUT

3. RUST

4. DUTCH ELM DISEASE

 

REPRODUCTION

1. USUALLY DONE ASEXUALLY

a. YEASTS BUD

b. HYPHAE FRAGMENT

c. PRODUCE ASEXUAL SPORES

2. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

a. DIPLOID PHASE SHORT LIVED

1. ZYGOTE FORMS FROM THE FUSION OF

TWO HAPLOID NUCLEI

2. ZYGOTE UNDERGOES MEIOSIS,

PRODUCING FOUR HAPLOID SPORES

3. HAPLOID SPORES GERMINATE TO FORM

HAPLOID HYPHAE

 

CLASSES OF TERRESTRIAL FUNGI

ZYGOMYCETES – i.e., BLACK BREADMOLD

1. START AS A WHITE COTTONY MASS OF WHITE,

NONSEPTATE HYPHAE

2. SPORANGIA ARE PRODUCED AT THE ENDS OF

HYPHAE AND CONTAIN HAPLOID

SPORANGIOSPORES

3. SPORANGIOSPORES ARE RELEASED AND

GERMINATE TO FORM HAPLOID HYPHAE

4. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION:

a. TWO HYPHAE MEET AND THEIR NUCLEI FUSE

TO FORM A DIPLOID ZYGOSPORE

b. ZYGOSPORE UNDERGOES MEIOSIS,

GERMINATES, FORMS A SPORANGIA

5. ZYGOMYCETES HIT LIST

a. SPOIL FOOD

b. HUMAN

c. INSECTS

1. FLIES

2. GRASSHOPPERS

d. PARASITES

1. NEMATODES

 

 

 

 

ASCOMYCETES – SAC FUNGI

1. HOUSE SEXUAL SPORES (ASCOSPORES)IN A SAC

CALLED AN ASCUS (PLEURAL=ASCI)

2. IN SINGLE CELLED YEAST, THE YEAST CELL

BECOMES THE ASCUS, CONTAINING 4

ASCOSPORES

3. MULTICELLED ASCOMYCETES FORM COMPLEX

FRUITING BODIES CALLED ASCOCARPS WHICH

CONTAIN MANY ASCI.

4. NEUROSPORA CRASSA USED IN MANY GENETIC

EXPERIMENTS.

BASIDIOMYCETES – CLUB FUNGI

1. HOUSE SEXUAL SPORES (BASIDIOSPORES) IN

MILLIONS OF CLUB-SHAPED BASIDIA. EACH

BASIDIUM CONTAINS FOUR BASIDIOSPORES

2. HYPHAE ARE COMPACTED TO MAKE THE FLESHY STRUCTURES WE CALL MUSHROOMS, BUT ARE CALLED BASIDIOCARPS. THE BASIDIA ARE ON GILLS OF THE BASIDIOCARP.

 

3. SOME ARE EDIBLE; SOME ARE LETHAL

 

DEATHCAPS, SMUTS, RUSTS, TREE KILLING

BRACKET FUNGI

 

 

 

DEUTEROMYCETES – IMPERFECT FUNGI

1. NO SEXUAL STAGE KNOWN (LACK A PERFECT

STAGE)

2. MANY SPECIES MOVED OUT OF THIS GROUP

WHEN A SEXUAL STAGE IS FOUND (i.e.,

PENICILLIUM)