FOLIOSE (CONT.)

 

     TOMENTUM - THIN CHAINS OF      CELLS EXTENDING FROM THE LOWER      CORTEX

 

          CHAINS ARE UNBRANCHED

 

          PALE BROWN TO BLACK FELTY

          MAT

 

          THINNER THAN RHIZINES

 

PORES

 

     FOUND ON LOWER CORTEX OF      LICHENS HAVING TOMENTUM

 

     TWO TYPES:

 

          1.     CYPHELLAE - SUNKEN PITS

               CHARACTERISTIC OF STICTA

 

          2.     PSEUDOCYPHELLAE -                               SMALLER, WHITE

 

INTERNAL STRUCTURE

 

     STRATIFIED LICHENS

 

          1.     UPPER CORTEX

 

          2.     ALGAL LAYER

 

          3.     MEDULLA (HYPHAL STRANDS)

 

          4.     LOWER CORTEX

 

     UNSTRATIFIED - NO LAYERS

 

          1.     CAN BE GELATINOUS

 

FRUITICOSE LICHENS

 

     1.     CONSIST OF SIMPLE OR                          DIVIDED BRANCHES THAT ARE           USUALLY      ROUND IN CROSS                    SECTION

 

     2.     BUSHY, HAIRY OR STRAP                SHAPED

 

     3.     ATTACHED AT BASE OR                       UNATTACHED

 

     4.     MAY HANG DOWN OR STAND                ERECT

 

     5.     GROWTH IS INDETERMINANT

          (FROM THE TIPS)- CAN BE 5-           10 FEET LONG

 

     6.     RHIZINES LACKING

 

     7.     INTERIOR

 

          a.     MEDULLA IN CENTER

 

          b.     ALGAL LAYER SURROUNDING

               THE MEDULLA

 

          c.     OUTER CORTEX

 

 

 

EXCEPTIONS:

 

     USNEA - HAS A DENSE CENTRAL

                    CORE

 

     CLADONIA - HAS A HOLLOW CENTER

 

CRUSTOSE LICHENS

 

     1.     VERY FIRMLY ATTACHED TO THE

          SUBSTRATE

 

     2.     CENTRAL PART OF THALLOSE           CAN BE:

 

          a.     CHINKED - CRACKED

 

          b.     FISSURED - DEEPLY                             CRACKED

 

          c.     AREOLATE - GREENISH                     PATCHES ON THE SURFACE

 

 

 

     3.     LACK LOWER CORTEX AND

          RHIZINES

 

--------------------------------

 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS

 

ISIDIA AND SOREDIA

 

     ISIDIA - CYLINDRICAL      OUTGROWTHS FROM THE UPPER      CORTEX SCATTERED EVENLY OVER      THE SURFACE

 

          ARE UP TO 0.5mm HIGH

 

          MAY BE:

 

          1.     SIMPLE OR BRANCHED

          2.     PAPILLATE

          3.     GLOBULAR

          4.     TUBULAR

          5.     SPARSE TO DENSE

 

 

     SOREDIA - ORIGINATE IN THE

     MEDULLA

 

          1.     ERUPT AT THE LOBE                               SURFACE AS A POWDER                        WHICH IS EASILY RUBBED                   OFF

 

               a.     POWDER CONSISTS OF A

                    FEW ALGAE CLOSELY

                    SURROUNDED BY HYPHAE

 

               b.     MAY BE ORGANIZED INTO

                    CLUMPS CALLED SORALIA

 

REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES

 

APOTHECIA - CUP OR DISC-SHAPED STRUCTURES, 1-20 MM IN DIAMETER

 

     1.     OCCUR ON UPPER CORTEX

 

 

 

 

     2.     BROWN OR BLACKISH-BROWN,

          RARELY ORANGE, YELLOW OR                WHITE

 

PERITHECIUM - FLASK-SHAPED STRUCTURE BURIED WITHIN THE THALLOSE

 

     1.     APPEAR AS BLACK DOTS ON THE

          UPPER CORTEX

 

     2.     CONTAIN MICROCONIDIA

 

REPRODUCTION IN NATURE

 

 ??????? A MYSTERY ??????????

 

SOREDIA, ISIDIA AND THALLUS FRAGMENTS ARE AGENTS OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION