LECTURE 1

SHARED CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE

1. EVERYTHING (LIVING AND NONLIVING) IS MADE UP OF
   ATOMS
WHICH ARE COMPOSED OF PROTONS, NEUTRONS 
   AND ELECTRONS.

2. ATOMS ARE BOUND TOGETHER TO FORM MOLECULES.
       a. THE MOLECULE DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) SETS
      APART THE LIVING WORLD FROM THE NONLIVING
      WORLD.
       b. DNA CARRIES THE DIRECTIONS FOR THE ASSEMBLY 
      OF MOLECULES TO FORM A LIVING ORGANISM.

LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION

SUBATOMIC PARTICLES (ELECTRONS, PROTONS, NEUTRONS)

ATOMS

MOLECULES

ORGANELLE

CELL

TISSUE

ORGAN

ORGAN SYSTEM

MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM

MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM

POPULATION (GROUPS OF INDIVIDUALS OF THE SAME KIND)

COMMUNITY (POPULATIONS OF ALL SPECIES OCCUPYING THE SAME AREA)

ECOSYSTEM (COMMUNITY AND ITS PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT)

BIOSPHERE (REGIONS OF THE EARTH AND ATMOSPHERE WHERE ORGANISMS CAN EXIST)

THE CELL IS THE SMALLEST LIVING UNIT OF LIFE

CELLS CAN METABOLIZE:

METABOLISM - THE ABILITY TO EXTRACT AND CONVERT ENERGY FROM THE ENVIRONMENT AND TO USE THIS ENERGY TO:

1) MAINTAIN ITSELF
2) GROW
3) REPRODUCE

ALL ENERGY USED BY LIFE ON EARTH ORIGINATES FROM THE SUN THAT IS TRAPPED BY PLANTS.

LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

1ST LAW - ENERGY IS NEITHER CREATED OR DESTROYED
2ND LAW - ENERGY GOES FROM AN ORDERED TO A
          DISORDERED STATE

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

1ST STAGE - CELLS TRAP SUNS ENERGY, AND CONVERT IT TO ANOTHER FORM OF ENERGY (CHEMICAL)

2ND STAGE - CELLS USE CHEMICAL ENERGY TO BUILD SUGARS,STARCH AND OTHER COMPONENTS

INTERDEPENDENCY AMONG ORGANISMS

ENERGY FLOW PATTERN

SUN --> PRODUCERS --> CONSUMERS --> DECOMPOSERS

3.  LIVING ORGANISMS CAN "RESPOND" TO THEIR
    ENVIRONMENT.

4.  LIVING THINGS HAVE THE ABILITY TO KEEP A STABLE
    INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT (HOMEOSTASIS)

5.  LIVING THINGS CAN REPRODUCE - OFFSPRING PRODUCED

6.  LIVING THINGS MUST BE ABLE TO MUTATE

    a. REPRODUCTION INVOLVES INHERITANCE (PARENTS
       TRANSMIT DNA INSTRUCTIONS FOR TRAITS).
          b. TRAITS ARE VARIABLE
          c. VARIABILITY IS A RESULT OF MUTATIONS
    d. MUTATIONS ARE NOT ALWAYS GOOD

DIVERSITY OF LIFE

LIVING ORGANISMS ARE DIVIDED INTO GROUPS CALLED KINGDOMS

SIX KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

1. EUBACTERIA - SINGLE CELLS. PROKARYOTIC.
   HAVE NO TRUE NUCLEUS
2. ARCHEABACTERIA - SINGLE CELLS. PROKARYOTIC.
   HAVE NO TRUE NUCLEUS. LIVE IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS
2. PROTISTA - MOSTLY SINGLE CELLED. EUKARYOTIC. DNA
       ENCLOSED IN A NUCLEUS
3. FUNGI - MOSTLY MULTICELLULAR. EUKARYOTIC. DIGEST
   FOOD OUTSIDE THEIR BODIES AND ABSORB THE
   PRODUCTS.
4. PLANTAE - MOSTLY MULTICELLULAR. EUKARYOTIC.
   PHOTOSYNTHETIC.
5. ANIMALIA - MULTICELLULAR. EUKARYOTIC. CONSUMERS.

EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY

EVOLUTION - CHANGES THROUGH SUCCESSIVE GENERATIONS

CHANGES MUST BE IN THE DNA TO BE PASSED TO FUTURE GENERATIONS

NATURAL SELECTION - THE RESULT OF DIFFERENCES IN SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION.

EXAMPLE: PEPPERED MOTHS

TWO COLORS: WHITE & BLACK
TREE TRUNKS: BLACK

BIRDS EAT MOTHS

BOTH COLOR MOTHS LAND ON A BLACK TREE TRUNK

WHICH COLOR MOTH WILL BE EATEN?

WHICH COLOR MOTH WILL SURVIVE?

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

1. MAKE AN OBSERVATION
2. ASK A QUESTION
3. DEVELOP ONE OR MORE HYPOTHESES
4. TEST THE HYPOTHESIS
5. GET RESULTS
6. REPEAT
7. DRAW A CONCLUSION

HYPOTHESIS VS. THEORY

THEORY - A RELATED SET OF HYPOTHESES THAT, WHEN TAKEN TOGETHER, FORM A TESTABLE EXPLANATION ABOUT SOME ASPECT OF THE NATURAL WORLD

THEORIES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE

LECTURE 2

THE ORGANIZATION OF MATTER

MATTER IS ANYTHING THAT OCCUPIES SPACE AND HAS MASS

LIQUIDS, GASES AND SOLIDS ARE FORMS OF MATTER THAT ARE MADE OF ELEMENTS

AN ELEMENT IS SOMETHING THAT CAN’T BE BROKEN DOWN INTO DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES

92 DIFFERENT ELEMENTS EXIST IN NATURE AND THE HUMAN BODY IS COMPOSED OF PRIMARILY CARBON, OXYGEN, HYDROGEN AND NITROGEN

EACH ELEMENT HAS A ONE OR TWO LETTER DESIGNATION. THIS DESIGNATION IS THE SAME IN ANY LANGUAGE.

THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS

AN ATOM IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF MATTER UNIQUE TO A PARTICULAR ELEMENT

ATOMS ARE JOINED TOGETHER TO FORM MOLECULES.

MOLECULES COMPOSED OF THE SAME PROPORTION OF TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS IS A COMPOUND.

EX. WATER IS COMPOSED OF MOLECULES MADE UP OF TWO
HYDROGEN ATOMS AND ONE OXYGEN ATOM.

AN ATOM IS COMPOSED OF PROTONS, NEUTRONS AND ELECTRONS.

PROTONS (+)CHARGE
ELECTRONS (-) CHARGE
NEUTRONS (NO CHARGE)

THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM IS MADE UP OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS

ELECTRONS CIRCLE THE NUCLEUS

THE NUMBER OF ELECTRONS IN AN ATOM IS EQUAL TO THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS

THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS IS THE ATOMIC NUMBER

THE NUMBER OF NEUTRONS AND PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS MAKES UP THE ATOMIC MASS (OR ATOMIC WEIGHT)

ISOTOPES - HAVE DIFFERENCES IN THE NUMBER OF NEUTRONS BUT HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS

CARBON-12
CARBON-13
CARBON-14

RADIOISOTOPES - ARE UNSTABLE, AND DECAY OVER TIME. THEY EMIT ELECTRONS AND ENERGY.

RADIOISOTOPES ARE USED TO:
1. DATE FOSSILS
2. TRACK CHEMICALS IN MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS
3. TREAT CANCER

THE NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDS

A CHEMICAL BOND IS THE UNION OF ELECTRON STRUCTURES OF ATOMS

BONDS ARE FORMED WHEN ELECTRONS ARE GIVEN UP, GAINED OR SHARED.

ELECTRONS TRAVEL IN ORBITALS
        a. ORBITALS ARE REGIONS OF SPACE AROUND A
      NUCLEUS
        b. EACH ORBITAL CONTAINS 2 ELECTRONS AT MOST
        c. THE ELECTRON IN THE ORBITAL CLOSEST TO THE
      NUCLEUS IS AT THE LOWEST ENERGY STATE
        d. ELECTRONS IN THE ORBITAL FURTHEST AWAY FROM
      THE NUCLEUS ARE AT THE HIGHEST ENERGY STATE

BONDS IN BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

1. IONIC - ONE ATOM LOSES AN ELECTRON AND ANOTHER
   GAINS
AN ELECTRON. THEY STAY ASSOCIATED BECAUSE
   OPPOSITE CHARGES ARE ATTRACTED TO ONE ANOTHER

2. COVALENT - ELECTRONS ARE SHARED BY TWO ATOMS

C-C (SINGLE BOND)
C=C (DOUBLE BOND)

CAN BE POLAR OR NONPOLAR

NONPOLAR - EQUAL SHARING OF ELECTRONS
POLAR - UNEQUAL SHARING OF ELECTRONS

3. HYDROGEN BONDING - THE INTERACTION A MOLECULE
   WITH A NEIGHBORING HYDROGEN ATOM THAT IS ALREADY
   COVALENTLY BOUND TO OTHER ATOMS.


HYDROGEN BONDS AND WATER

WATER MOLECULES ARE POLAR

LECTURE 3

PROPERTIES OF WATER

1. WATER MOLECULES ARE POLAR.
       THE OXYGEN SIDE HAS A NET NEGATIVE CHARGE.
       THE HYDROGEN SIDE HAS A NET POSITIVE CHARGE.

   POLARITY ALLOWS WATER MOLECULES TO BOND WITH EACH
       OTHER AND WITH OTHER POLAR MOLECULES. POLAR
   MOLECULES ARE HYDROPHYLLIC.

   NONPOLAR SUBSTANCES CANNOT INTERACT WITH WATER. 
   OILS
ARE NONPOLAR. THINGS THAT DO NOT INTERACT
   WITH WATER ARE
HYDROPHOBIC.

2. WATER IS TEMPERATURE STABILIZING. MUCH ENERGY IS
       NECESSARY TO CHANGE THE TEMPERATURE OF WATER.

       WHY? HYDROGEN BONDS ABSORB MUCH OF THE INCOMING
   ENERGY

       a. WHEN WATER IS LIQUID,HYDROGEN BONDS ARE
              CONSTANTLY BREAKING AND REFORMING.
       b. WHEN WATER IS HEATED TO BOILING, HYDROGEN
      BONDS ARE
BROKEN, AND EVAPORATION OCCURS.
       c. BELOW 0OC, HYDROGEN BONDS RESIST BREAKING AND
      BECOME MORE RIGID. ICE IS LESS
DENSE THAN
      WATER SO IT
FLOATS.

3. WATER HAS COHESIVE PROPERTIES

       WATER MOLECULES ARE ATTRACTED TO ONE ANOTHER

       a. COHESIVENESS GIVES WATER ITS SURFACE TENSION
       b. HELPS WATER TO MOVE THROUGH PLANTS

4. WATER HAS SOLVENT PROPERTIES.

       IONS AND POLAR MOLECULES READILY DISSOLVE IN
   WATER

MAKING SOLUTES.

EX. SALT DISSOLVES IN WATER

SALT IS NaCl. THE Na+ IS ATTRACTED BY THE NEGATIVE
END OF THE WATER MOLECULES AND THE Cl- IS ATTRACTED BY
THE POSITIVE END OF THE WATER MOLECULES.

WATER
FORMS A SHELL AROUND THESE IONS AND THEY CANNOT CLUMP TOGETHER SO, THEY ARE "DISSOLVED".

WATER, DISSOLVED IONS AND pH VALUES

HYDROGEN IONS (H+) ARE OFTEN DISSOLVED IN WATER

WATER OFTEN BREAKS UP INTO H+ IONS AND HYDROXIDE (OH-) IONS.

THE AMOUNT OF H+ IONS IN SOLUTION IS MEASURED USING A pH SCALE

pH VALUES GO FROM 0 TO 14

0 - 7 INDICATES ACID
7 - 14 INDICATES BASE
7 INDICATES NEUTRALITY

NEUTRAL - EQUAL AMOUNTS OF HYDROGEN AND HYDROXIDE IONS (PURE WATER)

100 = pH 0 - MOST ACIDIC
1014 = pH 14 - MOST BASIC

0          7        14

ACID    NEUTRAL     BASIC

EACH CHANGE OF ONE UNIT ON A pH SCALE INDICATES A TEN-FOLD CHANGE IN pH.

EX.

1 TO 2; A pH OF 1 IS 10
TIMES MORE ACIDIC THAN
pH 2

1 TO 3; A pH OF 1 IS 100 TIMES MORE ACIDIC THAN 3

WHY? 1 - 2 = 10 TIMES
             2 - 3 = 10 TIMES

10 X 10 = 100

A CELL IS GENERALLY SLIGHTLY BASIC, pH 7.35 TO 7.45


ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

ACIDS - ANY SUBSTANCES THAT RELEASE H+ IONS IN WATER

BASES - ANY SUBSTANCES THAT ACCEPT H+ IONS

HOW DOES pH WORK IN THE HUMAN BODY?

WHEN YOU EAT FOOD YOUR STOMACH IS STIMULATED TO PRODUCE HYDROCHLORIC ACID (HCl) WHICH DISSOCIATES INTO H+ AND Cl-

THE INCREASE IN ACIDITY STIMULATES ENZYMES TO
DIGEST FOOD AND KILLS
BACTERIA THAT WAS ON THE INJESTED FOOD

IF YOU EAT TOO MUCH, TOO MUCH STOMACH ACID MAY BE
PRODUCED

IF YOU HAVE OVEREATEN, YOU MAY TAKE AN ANTACID TO
NEUTRALIZE THE EXCESS ACID

WHEN ACIDS COMBINE WITH BASES,SALTS ARE FORMED

BUFFERS

ANY COMPOUND THAT CAN ACCEPT OR DONATE ELECTRONS OR BOTH.

EX. IN THE HUMAN BODY, HCO3- IN THE BLOOD COMBINES
WITH EXCESS H+ TO FORM
CARBONIC ACID

HCO3- + H+ = H2CO3

H2CO3 - H+ = HCO3-

BICARBONATE AND CARBONIC ACID BOTH ACT AS BUFFERS

SUMMARY

1. PROTONS, NEUTRONS AND ELECTRONS ARE THE BUILDING
       BLOCKS OF ATOMS

2. ALL ATOMS OF AN ELEMENT HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF
   PROTONS AND
ELECTRONS
       a. ATOMS THAT VARY IN THEIR NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
      ARE
ISOTOPES
       b. RADIOISOTOPES DECAY INTO ATOMS OF DIFFERENT
      TYPES

3. ORBITALS SURROUND THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM
       a. EACH ORBITAL CAN CONTAIN TWO ELECTRONS
       b. THE ELECTRONS IN THE ORBITAL NEAREST THE
      NUCLEUS
ARE AT THE LOWEST ENERGY STATE.
      c. THE ELECTRONS IN THE ORBITAL FURTHEST FROM THE
              NUCLEUS ARE AT THE HIGHEST ENERGY STATE

4. ATOMS OF CARBON, HYDROGEN,NITROGEN AND OXYGEN ARE
   THE MAIN ELEMENTS OF BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

5. ATOMS HAVE NO NET CHARGE
       a. AN ATOM THAT GAINS OR LOSES ELECTRONS IS AN
      ION

6. BONDS:
       a. IONIC BONDS - POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IONS
      STAY TOGETHER BY MUTUAL ATTRACTION.
       b. COVALENT BONDS - ATOMS SHARE ONE OR MORE
      ELECTRONS
       c. HYDROGEN BONDS - WEAK INTERACTIONS BETWEEN
              NEIGHBORING ATOMS HELD TO OTHER MOLECULES BY
              COVALENT BONDS

LECTURE 5

SUMMARY CONTINUED

7. THE pH SCALE IS A MEASURE OF THE CONCENTRATION OF
   HYDROGEN IONS DISSOLVED IN A SOLUTION
        a. ACIDS ARE SUBSTANCES THAT RELEASE HYDROGEN
      IONS
   b. BASES ARE SUBSTANCES THAT ACCEPT HYDROGEN IONS
        c. NEUTRAL SOLUTIONS HAVE EQUAL NUMBERS OF H+
      AND OH- IONS

8. BUFFERS MAINTAIN pH BY DONATING OR ACCEPTING H+
   IONS

        THEY KEEP THE pH OF TISSUES, BLOOD AND CELLS
   CONSTANT

9. WATER MOLECULES ARE POLAR
       a. POLAR THINGS ARE ATTRACTED TO WATER
       b. NONPOLAR THINGS ARE REPELLED BY WATER

10.HYDROGEN BONDS GIVE WATER MANY OF ITS UNIQUE
   PROPERTIES
       a. COHESION - SURFACE TENSION
       b. ADHESION
       c. LOW MELTING TEMPERATURE
       d. HIGH BOILING TEMPERATURE
       e. LIQUID OVER A LARGE RANGE OF TEMPERATURE
     (0-100OC)
       f. LESS DENSE WHEN FROZEN

METRIC, CONVERSION AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

1 METER(M) IS DIVIDED INTO 100 CENTIMETERS (CM)

1 CM IS DIVIDED INTO 10 MILLIMETERS (MM)

1 MM IS DIVIDED INTO 1000 MICROMETERS (uM)

1 uM IS DIVIDED INTO 1000 NANOMETERS (NM)

* HOW MANY MM ARE THERE IN A METER?

1M X 100CM X 10MM = 1000MM
       1M    1CM

* HOW MANY uM ARE THERE IN A CM?

1CM X 10MM X 1000uM = 10,000uM
                1CM     1MM

HOW MANY uM ARE THERE IN A METER?

 

____________________________ =


LIQUID MEASUREMENTS

1 LITER (l) IS COMPOSED OF 1000 MILLILITERS (ml).

1 ml IS COMPOSED OF 1000 ul.

* HOW MANY ul ARE THERE IN 2.3 mls?

2.3 mls x 1000 ul = 2300 ul
            ml

* HOW MANY mls ARE THERE IN 540 uls?

540 uls X 1 ml = .540 mls
         1000ul

NO ONE USES CENTILITERS BUT IF THEY DID, HOW MANY CENTILITERS DO YOU THINK THERE SHOULD BE IN A LITER?

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

THIS SYSTEM IS BASED ON BASE 10

100 = 1
101 = 10
102 = 100
10-1 = 0.1
10-2 = 0.01
10-3 = 0.001

EXPRESS USING SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

453 =

1284 =

.034 =

.103 =

42.7 =

 

CARBON COMPOUNDS IN CELLS

ALL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAIN CARBON COVALENTLY BOUND TO ANOTHER ELEMENT (NAMED BECAUSE THEY WERE THOUGHT TO COME FROM ORGANISMS).

CARBON ATOMS CAN BOND WITH FOUR OTHER CARBON ATOMS

TWO CARBON ATOMS HELD TOGETHER
BY A SINGLE BOND ARE MORE FLEXIBLE THAN TWO CARBON ATOMS HELD TOGETHER BY A DOUBLE BOND

HYDROCARBONS AND FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

HYDROCARBONS CONSIST OF HYDROGENS ATTACHED TO A CARBON BACKBONE. THEY COMPOSE THE STABLE PORTIONS OF MOST BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ARE OTHER MOLECULES COVALENTLY BOUND TO A CARBON BACKBONE.

  H
  |
--C--H    METHYL     FATS,OILS,WAXES
  |
  H

 

--OH      HYDROXYL   SUGARS,ALCOHOL

 

    H
   /
--N       AMINO      AMINO ACIDS, PROTEINS
  \ 
        

  O
  |
--O--P--O PHOSPHATE     DNA,RNA,ATP
  |
     O

HOW CELLS USE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

5 TYPES OF REACTIONS MEDIATED BY ENZYMES

1. FUNCTIONAL GROUP TRANSFER - THE TRANSFER OF ONE FUNCTIONAL GROUP FROM ONE MOLECULE TO ANOTHER.

2. ELECTRON TRANSFER - ONE OR  MORE MOLECULES ARE TAKEN FROM  ONE MOLECULE AND DONATED TO  ANOTHER MOLECULE

3. REARRANGEMENT - THE JUGGLING  OF INTERNAL BONDS

4. CONDENSATION - THE COMBINING  OF TWO MOLECULES TO MAKE A  LARGER MOLECULE

EX. DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS(WATER MOLECULE REMOVED)

5. CLEAVAGE - THE SPLITTING OF A LARGE MOLECULE INTO TWO SMALLER MOLECULES

EX. HYDROLYSIS (WATER MOLECULE IS ADDED)

MOLECULES OF LIFE (ORGANIC COMPOUNDS)

1. CARBOHYDRATES
2. LIPIDS
3. PROTEINS
4. NUCLEIC ACIDS

SMALL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MAKE UP LARGER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

1. SIMPLE SUGARS --> CARBOHYDRATES
2. FATTY ACIDS --> LIPIDS
3. AMINO ACIDS --> PROTEINS
4. NUCLEOTIDES --> NUCLEIC ACIDS

LECTURE 5

THE SMALL CARBOHYDRATES

A CARBOHYDRATE IS A SIMPLE SUGAR OR A MOLECULE COMPOSED OF TWO OR MORE SUGAR UNITS

CARBOHYDRATES ARE THE MOST ABUNDANT BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

THERE ARE THREE CLASSES OF CARBOHYDRATES:

1. MONOSACCHARIDES
2. OLIGOSACCHARIDES
3. POLYSACCHARIDES

A. MONOSACCHARIDES

SACCHARIDE = SUGAR

MONO = ONE

THE SIMPLEST SUGAR KNOWN

CONSISTS OF:

1. AT LEAST TWO -OH GROUPS
2. AN ALDEHYDE OR KETONE GROUP

THEY ARE SWEET TASTING AND DISSOLVE READILY IN WATER

SOME SIMPLE SUGARS ARE GLUCOSE AND, FRUCTOSE. THEY ARE MADE OF RINGS OF SIX CARBON ATOMS

B. OLIGOSACCHARIDES

SHORT CHAINS OF TWO OR MORE COVALENTLY BONDED SUGAR UNITS.

OLIGOSACCHARIDES MADE UP OF TWO SUGARS ARE CALLED DISACCHARIDES.

SOME DISACCHARIDES ARE:

LACTOSE (GLUCOSE + GALACTOSE)

SUCROSE (GLUCOSE + FRUCTOSE)

MALTOSE (GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE)

SUCROSE IS THE MOST ABUNDANT SUGAR IN NATURE

CARBOHYDRATES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO SUCROSE MOLECULES TO BE TRANSPORTED THROUGH PLANTS

STARCH (A CARBOHYDRATE) IS BROKEN DOWN TO MALTOSE IN GERMINATING SEEDS TO PROVIDE ENERGY FOR THE DEVELOPING EMBRYO. ENZYMES BREAKDOWN CARBOHYDRATES.

C. POLYSACCHARIDES

A POLYSACCHARIDE IS A STRAIGHT OR BRANCHED CHAIN OF HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF SUGAR UNITS

STARCH AND CELLULOSE ARE BOTH MADE UP OF GLUCOSE MOLECULES

- STARCH CAN BE EASILY BROKEN DOWN TO SUGARS
- CELLULOSE CANNOT EASILY BE
BROKEN DOWN

EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE MADE UP OF THE SAME MONOMER (GLUCOSE) THEY BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY BECAUSE OF HOW THE MONOMERS ARE PUT TOGETHER.

GLYCOGEN, IN ANIMALS, IS MADE UP OF GLUCOSE MOLECULES

LIPIDS

NONPOLAR, DO NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER.

INCLUDE NEUTRAL FATS, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, AND WAXES. ALL HAVE A FATTY ACID COMPONENT

FATTY ACIDS ARE HYDROCARBONS WITH A BACKBONE OF UP TO 36 CARBONS WITH A CARBOXYL GROUP AT ONE END AND HYDROGENS OCCUPYING THE OTHER BONDING SITES

FATTY ACIDS

 HO
  |
  C=O
  |
H-C-H
  |
H-C-H
  |
H-C-H
  |
H-C-H
  |
H-C-H
  |
H-C-H
  |
H-C-H
  |
  H

SATURATED VS. UNSATURATED

FATTY ACID CHAINS HAVING NO DOUBLE BONDS ARE SATURATED

 HO           HO
  |            |
  C=O          C=O

  |            |
H-C-H        H-C-H
  |            |
H-C-H        H-C-H
  |            l
H-C-H           C-H
  |             \\
H-C-H            C-H
  |              |
H-C-H          H-C-H
  |              |
  H              H

UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS HAVE ONE OR MORE DOUBLE BONDS

POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS HAVE MANY DOUBLE BONDS

A. NEUTRAL FATS (TRIGLYCERIDES)

THESE ARE THE MOST ABUNDANT LIPIDS AND ARE A RICH SOURCE OF ENERGY

EXAMPLES ARE BUTTER, LARD AND OILS

THESE LIPIDS ARE MADE UP OF A GLYCEROL BACKBONE AND THREE FATTY ACIDS.

H H H

H-C--------C--------C-H

B. PHOSPHOLIPIDS

PHOSPHOLIPIDS HAVE A GLYCEROL BACKBONE AND TWO FATTY ACID TAILS AND A HYDROPHILIC "HEAD" THAT CONTAINS A PHOSPHATE GROUP. PHOSPHOLIPIDS MAKE UP THE LIPID BILAYER OF CELL MEMBRANES

C. WAXES

COMPOSED OF LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS LINKED TO LONG CHAIN ALCOHOLS OR CARBON RINGS.

WAXES FOUND IN NATURE INCLUDE, HONEYCOMBS, INSULATION IN WATER FOWL, SURFACE COVERINGS OF LEAVES AND FRUITS

D.STEROLS

LIPIDS THAT DO NOT CONTAIN FATTY ACIDS

ALL HAVE A BACKBONE OF FOUR FUSED-TOGETHER CARBON RINGS

AN EXAMPLE IS CHOLESTEROL WHICH IS A PRECURSOR TO HORMONES SUCH AS TESTOSTEONE AND ESTROGEN, AND TO BILE SALTS AND VITAMIN D.

PROTEINS

THE MOST DIVERSE OF BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES. THESE CAN BE ENZYMES, STRUCTURAL PROTEINS, TRANSPORT PROTEINS, NUTRITIOUS PROTEINS, AND REGULATORY PROTEINS.

TWENTY-ONE AMINO ACIDS ARE USED TO MAKE UP ALL PROTEINS

AN AMINO ACID IS MADE UP OF:

 

1. AN AMINO GROUP; H3N-

2. AN ACID (CARBOXYL) GROUP;

COO-

3. A HYDROGEN ATOM; H-

4. AN R GROUP

ALL THESE GROUPS ARE BONDED TO A SINGLE CARBON ATOM BY COVALENT BONDS

    H

N3H-C-COO-

    R

PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS

AMINO ACIDS ARE LINKED TO EACH OTHER BY PEPTIDE BONDS

PEPTIDE BONDS FORM BETWEEN THE AMINO GROUP OF ONE AMINO ACID AND THE CARBOXYL GROUP OF ANOTHER AMINO ACID

THE SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS IS THE PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF A PROTEIN.

THE PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF A PROTEIN DETERMINES ITS SHAPE IN TWO WAYS:

1. GIVES RISE TO PATTERNS OF HYDROGEN BONDING

2. PUTS R GROUPS IN POSITIONS TO INTERACT

SECONDARY STRUCTURE - COILING OR FOLDING DUE TO REGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN BONDS

TERTIARY (GLOBULAR)STRUCTURE - SECONDARY STRUCTURE BECOMES FURTHER FOLDED DUE TO THE INTERACTION OF R GROUPS ALONG THE CHAIN

QUATERNARY STRUCTURE - THE ASSOCIATION OF TWO OR MORE GLOBULAR STRUCTURES

LIPOPROTEINS AND GLYCOPROTEINS

LIPOPROTEINS - PROTEINS WHICH COMBINE WITH LIPIDS

GLYCOPROTEINS - PROTEINS TO WHICH OLIGOSACCHARIDES ARE ATTACHED

PROTEIN DENATURATION

DENATURATION IS THE LOSS OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPE OF A PROTEIN

LOSS OF SHAPE MEANS A LOSS IN FUNCTION

EX. COOKING AN EGG

NUCLEOTIDES AND NUCLEIC ACIDS

NUCLEOTIDES ARE COMPOSED OF THREE PARTS

1. A FIVE-CARBON SUGAR

    a. RIBOSE

    b. DEOXYRIBOSE

2. A PHOSPHATE GROUP

3. A NITROGEN CONTAINING BASE

    a. SINGLE OR DOUBLE RING STRUCTURE

IMPORTANT NUCLEOTIDES IN METABOLISM

1. ATP - ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE

    a. DELIVERS ENERGY FROM ONE REACTION SITE TO ANOTHER REACTION    

        SITE

2. NAD+ - NICOTINOMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE

3. FAD+ - FLAVIN ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE BOTH OF THE ABOVE CAN FUNCTION

AS COENZYMES

4. cAMP - CYCLIC ADENOSINE

MONOPHOSPHATE

FUNCTIONS AS A CHEMICAL

MESSENGER

THERE ARE FIVE KNOWN NUCLEOTIDES THAT ARE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS

1. PURINES

a. ADENINE

b. GUANINE

2. PYRIMIDINES

a. CYTOSINE

b. THYMINE

c. URACIL

NUCLEOTIDES ARE THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS

THERE ARE TWO MAIN NUCLEIC ACIDS

1. DNA - DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID

a. DOUBLE STRANDED

- STRANDS HELD TOGETHER BY HYDROGEN BONDS

- CONTAINS THE GENETIC CODE

b. TWISTS HELICALLY

 

2. RNA - RIBONUCLEIC ACID

a. SINGLE STRANDED

b. "READS" THE DNA AND DOES WHAT IT SAYS (MAKES PROTEINS)

SUMMARY

1. ALL ORGANIC MOLECULES CONTAIN CARBON THAT CAN FORM UP TO FOUR COVALENT

BONDS WITH OTHER ATOMS.

THESE BONDS CAN BE SINGLE, DOUBLE OR TRIPLE. SINGLE BONDS ARE WEAKEST AND

TRIPLE BONDS ARE STRONGEST

2. A HYDROCARBON IS COMPOSED OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON.

MOST ORGANIC MOLECULES ARE HYDROCARBON DERIVATIVES

3. CELLS ASSEMBLE, REARRANGE, AND BREAK APART BY FIVE

KINDS OF ENZYME-MEDIATED REACTIONS:

a. FUNCTIONAL GROUP TRANSFER

b. ELECTRON TRANSFER

c. INTERNAL REARRANGEMENT

d. CONDENSATION

e. CLEAVAGE

4. CELLS USE POOLS OF SIMPLE SUGARS, FATTY ACIDS, AMINO ACIDS, AND NUCLEOTIDES TO

MAKE POLYSACCHARIDES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS

5. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PROTEINS IS CONTROLLED BY THE SEQUENCE OF PEPTIDES

MAKING UP THE PROTEIN.

NUCLEIC ACID STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ARE CONTROLLED BY

THE SEQUENCE OF NUCLEOTIDES

QUESTIONS

1. WHERE DOES ALL THE ENERGY NEEDED FOR LIFE ORIGINATE?

2. WHAT ARE THE THREE TYPES OF BONDS?

    a. WHICH ONE IS STRONGEST?

    b. WHICH ONE IS WEAKEST?

    c. WHICH BOND RESULTS FROM THE SHARING OF ELECTRONS?

3. WHAT ARE THE THREE TYPES OF SUBATOMIC PARTICLES?

    a. WHICH ONE IS POSITIVELY CHARGED?

    b. WHICH ONE IS NEGATIVELY CHARGED?

    c. WHICH ONE HAS NO CHARGED?

4. HOW IS MOLECULAR WEIGHT CALCULATED?

5. HOW IS MOLECULAR WEIGHT DETERMINED?

6. WHAT ARE THE STEPS IN A SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT?

7. WHAT IS AN HYPOTHESIS?

8. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF A CONTROL?

9. WHAT ARE THE FIVE KINGDOMS OF THE FIVE KINGDOM

CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM?

10.WHAT ARE THE SHARED CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE?

11.WHAT GIVES WATER IT’S POLAR PROPERTY?

12.WITH REGARD TO PROTEINS,

    a. WHAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE THREE DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS?

    b. WHAT IS QUATERNARY STRUCTURE?

    c. HOW DOES DENATURATION AFFECT A PROTEINS FUNCTION?

13.WHAT MONOMERS ARE FOUND IN:

    a. POLYSACCHARIDES?

    b. LIPIDS?

    c. PROTEINS?

    d. NUCLEIC ACIDS?

14.HOW DOES AN ISOTOPE DIFFER FROM WHAT IT IS AN ISOTOPE OF?

15.WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH OF THE FIVE KINGDOMS?

16.WHAT IS THE FIRST STEP OF A SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT?

17.WHAT RANGE ON THE pH SCALE INDICATES ACIDITY?

18.WHAT RANGE OF THE pH SCALE INDICATES A BASIC pH?

19.WHAT DOES A NEUTRAL pH INDICATE?

20.HOW DOES A BUFFER REGULATE pH?

DEFINITIONS

1. CONDENSATION

2. CLEAVAGE

3. MONOSACCHARIDES

4. POLYSACCHARIDES

5. TRIGLYCERIDES

6. PHOSPHOLIPID

7. COVALENT BOND

8. HYDROGEN BOND

9. IONIC BOND

10.CARBOHYDRATE

11.ISOTOPE

12.LIPOPROTEIN

13.DNA

14.FUNCTIONAL GROUP

15.HYDROPHILLIC

16.HYDROPHOBIC

17.ATP

18.COMMUNITY

19.POPULATION

20.ECOSYSTEM

21.THEORY

22.HOMEOSTASIS

23.NATURAL SELECTION

24.EVOLUTION

25.MUTATION

26.ENZYME

27.GLYCOPROTEIN

28.CUTIN

29.HYDROLYSIS

30.RNA AND DNA

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

KEY CONCEPTS

1. CELLS ARE THE SMALLEST UNITS OF LIFE

2. ALL CELLS HAVE AN OUTERMOST PLASMA MEMBRANE, A

REGION OF DNA, AND A CYTOPLASM

3. EUKARYOTIC CELLS HAVE A MEMBRANE BOUND NUCLEUS AND

MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES.

PROKARYOTIC CELLS LACK A MEMBRANE BOUND NUCLEUS AND

ORGANELLES

THE CELL THEORY

ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF ONE OR MORE CELLS

THE CELL IS THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE

NEW CELLS ARISE ONLY FROM CELLS THAT ALREADY EXIST

BASIC ASPECTS OF CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

THREE COMMON ASPECTS OF CELLS

1. PLASMA MEMBRANE

    a. MAINTAINS THE CELL AS A DISTINCT ENTITY

    b. REGULATES ENTRY AND EXIT INTO AND OUT OF THE CELL

2. DNA CONTAINING REGION

3. CYTOPLASM

    a. EVERYTHING ENCLOSED BY THE PLASMA MEMBRANE EXCEPT FOR THE REGION OF DNA

TWO TYPES OF CELLS:

1. EUKARYOTIC CELLS

EU = TRUE

KARYON = KERNEL

    a. HAVE A MEMBRANE-BOUND NUCLEUS

    b. HAVE MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES

2. PROKARYOTIC CELLS

PRO = BEFORE

KARYON = KERNEL

    a. NO MEMBRANE-BOUND NUCLEUS

    b. NO MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES

 

CELL MEMBRANES

MEMBRANES CONSIST OF:

    a. LIPID BILAYER

        1. BARS THE ENTRY AND EXIT OF WATER-SOLUBLE SUBSTANCES INTO AND OUT OF

           THE CELL

    b. PROTEINS

        1. POSITIONED IN OR ON THE SURFACES OF THE LIPID BILAYER

            a. PASSIVE CHANNELS FOR WATER SOLUBLE SUBSTANCES

            b. CARRY ELECTRONS OR PUMP SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE LIPID BILAYER

            c. FUNCTION IN CELL-CELL RECOGNITION

SURFACE-TO-VOLUME CONSTRAINTS

WHY ARE MOST CELLS SO SMALL?

SURFACE AREA-TO-VOLUME RATIO

AS A CELL GROWS ITS VOLUME INCREASES MORE THAN IT’S

SURFACE AREA

EX. CUBE THAT IS 1 CM3

VOLUME = L X H X W

= 1 X 1 X 1

= 1

SURFACE AREA = L X W X 6

= 1 X 1 X 6

= 6

SURFACE AREA:VOLUME = 6:1

 

EX. CUBE THAT IS 0.5 CM3

VOLUME  = .5 X .5 X .5

        = .125

SURFACE AREA = .5 X .5 X 6

             = 1.50

SURFACE AREA:VOLUME = 1.50/.125

= 10.26/1

AS A CELL BECOMES BIGGER ITS VOLUME INCREASES FASTER THAN ITS SURFACE AREA AND NUTRIENTS AND WASTES MUST TRAVEL LARGER DISTANCES TO GET INTO OR OUT OF THE CELL

PROKARYOTIC CELLS - THE BACTERIA

1. DNA NOT ENCLOSED IN A NUCLEUS

2. SMALLEST CELLS

3. MANY HAVE A BACTERIAL FLAGELLUM TO ALLOW FOR RAPID MOVEMENT THROUGH A LIQUID ENVIRONMENT

4. SURROUNDED BY A CELL WALL

5. HAVE A PLASMA MEMBRANE

6. HAVE A SMALL VOLUME OF CYTOPLASM

7. CONTAIN A SINGLE, CIRCULAR DNA MOLECULE

8. CONTAIN RIBOSOMES MADE OF RNA AND PROTEIN.

    a. TWO SUBUNITS, EACH 20 TO 30 nanometers IN DIAMETER

    b. SITE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

9. HAVE EXPLOITED EVERY NICHE IN THE ENVIRONMENT

EUKARYOTIC CELLS

CELLS CONTAINING A NUCLEUS

A NUCLEUS CONTAINS THE DNA OF A CELL AND IS SURROUNDED BY A

DOUBLE MEMBRANE

EUKARYOTIC ORGANISMS CONTAIN ORGANELLES THAT HAVE DIFFERENT

FUNCTIONS

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS

1. PLANTS HAVE PLASTIDS THAT CONTAIN CHLOROPHYLL

2. PLANTS HAVE A LARGE CENTRAL VACUOLE

3. PLANT CELLS ARE SURROUNDED BY A CELLULOSIC CELL WALL

4. ANIMAL CELLS HAVE CENTRIOLES AND PLANT CELLS DON’T

ORGANELLES

1. NUCLEUS -

    a. CONTAINS DNA

        i. DNA IS THE BLUEPRINT OF LIFE

        ii. DNA IS DIVIDED INTO CHROMOSOMES

            a. LONG THREADS OF DNA

    b. BOUNDED BY A DOUBLE MEMBRANE

        i. REGULATES ENTRY AND EXIT TO THE NUCLEUS

    c. CONTAINS A NUCLEOLUS

                 i. SITE FOR PROTEIN AND RIBOSOMAL SUBUNIT ASSEMBLY

CYTOMEMBRANE SYSTEM

1. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)

2. GOLGI BODIES

3. VESICLES

    a. PEROXISOMES/GLYOXYSOMES

    b. LYSOSOMES

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

TWO TYPES

1. ROUGH

COVERED WITH RIBOSOMES

2. SMOOTH

LACKS RIBOSOMES

GOES FROM THE NUCLEUS TO THE PLASMA MEMBRANE

GOLGI BODIES

FLATTENED SACS WHERE LIPIDS AND PROTEINS ARE MODIFIED AND PACKAGED FOR TRANSPORT

VESICLES

1. PEROXISOMES

PEROXIDES BREAK DOWN FATTY ACIDS AND AMINO ACIDS

PEROXIDE CONVERTED TO WATER AND OXYGEN OR USED TO BREAK

DOWN ALCOHOL

2. GLYOXISOMES

HAVE ENZYMES THAT CONVERT STORED FATS AND OILS INTO SUGARS

3. LYSOSOMES

CONTAIN ENZYMES THAT BREAK DOWN POLYSACCHARIDES, PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS AND

SOME LIPIDS.

•Mitochondria
•Sites of aerobic respiration
•Organelles enclosed by a double membrane
•Mitochondria
•Cristae and matrix contain enzymes for aerobic respiration
–Nutrients broken down and energy packaged in ATP
–Carbon dioxide and water by-products
•

Fig. 4-18: Mitochondria

•Chloroplasts
•Plastids that carry out photosynthesis
•Inner membrane of chloroplast encloses the stroma
•During photosynthesis, chlorophyll traps light energy
•Energy converted to chemical energy in ATP
•

Fig. 4-19: Chloroplast

 

•

Cellular respiration and photosynthesis

–
•Endosymbiotic Theory
• Mitochondria and Chloroplasts resemble bacteria
–Have own DNA, ribosomes
–Divide on their own
•May have evolved from ancient bacteria that were engulfed but not digested
•THE CYTOSKELETON
•Learning Objectives
–11) Describe the structure and functions of the cytoskeleton.
–12) Compare cilia and flagella, and describe their functions.
•Cytoskeleton
•Present in all eukaryotic cells
•Basis for cell shape and internal organization
•Allows organelle movement within cells and, in some cases, cell motility
•Cytoskeleton
•Internal framework made of
•
A.Microtubules
B.Microfilaments
C.Intermediate filaments
•

Fig. 4-20: The Cytoskeleton

•Cilia and flagella
•Thin, movable structures that project from cell surface
•Function in movement
•Microtubles anchored in cell by basal body
•

Figure 4-24 Structure
of cilia

•CELL COVERINGS
•Learning Objective
–13) Describe the glycocalyx, extracellular matrix, and cell wall.
•Cell Coverings
•Glycocalyx, cell coat of eukaryotes formed by polysaccarides extending from plasma membrane
•Many animal cells also surrounded by an extracellular  matrix (ECM) consisting of carbohydrates and protein.
–Fibronectins are glycoproteins of the ECM that bind to integrins, receptor proteins in the plasma membrane.
•
•
•Most bacteria, fungi, and plants have cell walls made of carbohydrates
•

Figure 4-27: Extracellular matrix

•

Figure 4-28: Plant cell walls

•