GAMETOPHYTE (CONT.)

CELL STRUCTURE

     A. CELL ARRANGEMENT (AEROLATION)

          1. LAX W/THIN CELL WALLS
          2. FIRM TO RIGID WITH THICK CELL W ALLS

                         AEROLATION MAY BE:

          1. UNIFORM THROUGHOUT
          2. BASAL, APICAL OR MARGINAL CELLS MAY DIFFER
               A. IN ACROCARPUS MOSSES, UPPER LEAF CELLS
                                          ARE SHORT AND BASAL CELLS ARE LONGER
                  AND WIDER
               B. IN PLEUROCARPUS MOSSES, UPPER LEAF CELLS
                  ARE
LONGER WHILE BASAL CELLS ARE SHORTER
                  AND WIDER

      B.     CELL CAVITY OR LUMEN
          1. LUMEN DECREASES AS THE CELL WALL
             THICKENS
          2. CONTENTS MAY DIFFER IN DENSITY IN DIFFERENT
             PARTS OF THE LEAF
             a. FEW TO MANY CHLOROPLASTS
                    SOME LEAVES ARE CHLOROPHYLLOSE TO THE
                BASE BUT, USUALLY CHLOROPLASTS GET 
                PROGRESSIVELY FEWER IN CELLS TOWARD THE
                BASE
             b. LIGHT-GREEN TO DARK GREEN

    
C. CELL SHAPE

         1. QUADRATE SQUARE OR NEARLY SO (ISOMETRIC)
         2. RECTANGULAR LONGER THAN WIDE W/PARALLEL
            SIDES AND SQUARE ENDS
         3. OBLONG LONGER THAN WIDE W/PARALLEL SIDES
            AND ROUNDED ENDS
         4. FUSIFORM DIAMOND SHAPED
        
5. RHOMBOIDAL RECTANGULAR W/ END WALLS SLANTED
            IN THE SAME DIRECTION
         6. HEXAGONAL SIX SIDED, ISODIAMETRIC OR ELONGATED
         7. LINEAR 6-15:1

     D. CELL WALLS

         
1. THIN
          2. THICKEN WITH AGE
             a. ACROCARPUS THICKEN NEAR TIP
             b. PLEUROCARPUS THICKEN NEAR BASE
          3. CHANGE COLOR AS THEY THICKEN
                a. YELLOWISH
                b. REDDISH-BROWN
            c. ORANGE
            d. RED
         4. THICK WALLS MAY BE PITTED (POROUS)

    
E. LEAF SURFACE

         1. FLAT
             2. BULGING
            a. MAMMALOSE
             3. PAPILLOSE
            a. A PAPILLAE IS A SMALL PROJECTION FORMED
               BY A CUTICULAR SUBSTANCE
            b. SHAPE
                                     -           LOW
                                     -           HIGH
               -           BIFURCATE (FORKED)
               -           C-SHAPED
                   c. NUMBER
               -           ONE
               -           MANY (PLURIPAPILLOSE)

            d. LOCATION
               -           FEWER AND WEAKER TOWARD BASE
                                     -           ABSENT AT BASE


     F. APPENDAGES

        1. LAMELLAE SHEETS OF TISSUE
              a. FISSIDENS HAS A VAGINATE LAMINA LOOKS
              LIKE A LEAF BLADE.
        2. FILAMENTS CHAINS OF CELLS ATTACHED TO THE COSTA

 SPORE CAPSULE TAXON OMY

CALYPTRA (1N)

URN (2N)

SETA (2N)

FOOT (2N)

FUNCTIONS OF SPOROPHYTE STRUCTURES

CALYPTRA PART OF THE ARCHEGONIUM; PROTECTS THE DEVELOPING SPOROPHYTE FROM:

     A. DESICCATION
     B. PREDATION

OPERCULUM LID TO KEEP THE SPORES IN  THE URN UNTIL MATURE

PERISTOME TEETH SERIES OF TEETH AT THE MOUTH OF THE URN TO KEEP THE SPORES IN THE URN

FOR SPORES TO BE RELEASED:

1. THE CALYPTRA FALLS OFF FIRST
     2. THE OPERCULUM FALLS OFF SECOND
     3. THE PERISTOME TEETH DRY AND OPEN
     4. CAPSULE RELEASES SPORES WHEN IT IS SHAKEN

SOME MOSSES LACK AN OPERCULUM AND SPORES ARE ONLY RELEASED WHEN THE URN WALL RUPTURES: CLEISTOGAMOUS

SETA STALK THAT CONNECTS THE URN TO THE FOOT; CONDUCTS FOOD FROM THE GAMETOPHYTE TO THE SPOROPHYTE

FOOT ANCHORS THE SPOROPHYTE TO THE GAMETOPHYTE

CAPSULES CAN BE:

1. IMMERSED NOT READILY SEEN ABOVE THE LEAVES
2. EMERGENT ONLY THE URN, AT MOST, RISES ABOVE THE
   GAMETOPHYTE
3. EXERTED URN AND PART OF THE SETA SEEN ABOVE THE
   GAMETOPHYTE



 ACROCARPOUS

     1. STEMS ERECT

     2. RARELY BRANCHING

     3. SPOROPHYTE TERMINAL

 

PLEUROCARPOUS

     1. STEMS PROSTRATE
     2. BRANCHED
     3. SPOROPHYTES LATERALLY LOCATED

ANTHERIDIA AND ARCHEGONIA

 THE ANTHERIDIUM CONSISTS OF A:

    
1. THIN WALLED SAC
     2. ANTHEROZOID MOTHER CELL
     3. SHORT STALK

ANTHEROZOID MOTHER CELL GIVES RISE, BY MITOSIS, TO MALE GAMETES.

THE ANTHERIDIUM RANGES IN SHAPE FROM GLOBOSE TO CIGAR SHAPED

THE ARCHEGONIUM CONSISTS OF:

1. A WIDE ROUNDED VENTER WHICH HOLDS THE EGG
     2. A LONG NECK WHICH HAS A CANAL

THE EGG IS NONMOBILE AND IS PROTECTED BY THE WALL OF THE VENTER.

THE SPERM MUST SWIM TO THE EGG FOR FERTILIZATION TO TAKE PLACE

IF A MOSS HAS BOTH MALE AND FEMALE STRUCTURES IT IS MONOICOUS

IF A MOSS HAS EITHER MALE OR FEMALE STRUCTURES IT IS DIOICOUS

A MONOICOUS PLANT CAN HAVE THE FOLLOWING ARRANGEMENTS OF SEX ORGANS:

     1. SYNOICOUS ANTHERIDIA AND ARCHEGONIA ARE MIXED
        IN THE SAME INFLORESCENCE

     2. AUTOICOUS ARCHEGONIA AND ANTHERIDIA IN SEPARATE
        INFLORESCENCES