SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS

CHARACTERISTICS:

          1. SPOROPHYTE GENERATION DOMINANT

       A. DIPLOID SPOROPHYTE PRODUCES HAPLOID SPORES

       B. SPORES WIND DISPERSED

    2. EGGS PRODUCED IN ARCHEGONIA
                 SPERM PRODUCED IN ANTHERIDA

    3. PRODUCE CHLOROPHYLL A AND B, CAROTENOIDS, STARCH,
       CELLULOSIC CELL WALLS, MOTILE SPERM

    4. HAVE A WELL-DEVELOPED VASCULAR SYSTEM

       A. TRANSPORT WATER AND NUTRIENTS

    5. MAY HAVE LIGNIN AND CELLULOSE IN SECONDARY CELL
       WALLS

    6. HAVE A CUTICLE

    7. HAVE STOMATA

GENERALIZED LIFE-CYCLE

1. SPORES GERMINATE TO FORM A HAPLOID GAMETOPHYTE

2. EGG AND SPERM ARE PRODUCED

3. FERTILIZATION OCCURS

4. DIPLOID SPOROPHYTE DEVELOPES

THE SPOROPHYTE AND GAMETOPHYTE ARE NUTRITIONALLY INDEPENDENT FROM EACH OTHER.

GAMETOPHYTE

1. SHORT LIVED; VERY SMALL

2. MAY BE SAPROPHYTIC OR PHOTOSYNTHETIC

REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES

1. SPORANGIA AGGREGATED INTO CONES

   SPORANGIA = SPORE PRODUCING STRUCTURES

   STROBOLI = CONES

   STEM TIP WITH TIGHTLY PACKED LEAVES THAT BEAR SPORANGIA

ORGANIZATION OF VASCULAR TISSUES

STELE FORMATION

1. SIMPLE STELE

   PROTOSTELE = SOLID CORE OF XYLEM AND PHLOEM

2. COMPLEX STELE

   VASCULAR TISSUE SCATTERED AMONG NONVASCULAR TISSUE

   A. SIPHONOSTELE - PITH SURROUNDED BY VASCULAR TISSUE

   B. DICTYOSTELE - CYLINDER OF VASCULAR TISSUE BROKEN BY
      LEAF GAPS

   C. EUSTELE - VASCULAR TISSUE ARRANGED IN BUNDLES
      AROUND PITH

DIVERSITY OF SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS

DIVISIONS:

PSILOTOPHYTA - WHISK FERNS

LYCOPODOPHYTA - CLUB MOSSES

EQUISETOPHYTA - HORSETAILS

PTERYDOPHYTA - FERNS

DIVISION PSILOTOPHYTA

    CHARACTERISTICS:

    1. NO ROOTS - HAVE RHIZOMES, INSTEAD

       RHIZOME = UNDERGROUND STEM

    2. NO LEAVES - SOME HAVE ENATIONS

    3. HAVE VASCULAR TISSUE

    4. GREEN, PHOTOSYNTHETIC STEMS

       a. DICHOTOMOUSLY BRANCHED

    5. SPORES PRODUCED IN SPORANGIA ALONG STEMS

       a. MEIOSIS PRODUCES HAPLOID SPORES

    6. SPORES PRODUCE HAPLOID GAMETOPHYTES

       a. GAMETOPHYTE IS NONPHOTOSYNTHETIC AND IS
                         BELOW GROUND

DIVISION LYCOPODOPHYTA - CLUB MOSSES

1. 10 - 15 GENERA; 1,100 SPECIES

   a. Selaginella - spike mosses

   b. Lycopodium - club mosses

   COMMON NAMES REFER TO THE APPEARANCE OF THE
   REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES

2. TERRESTRIAL OR EPIPHYTIC

3. SPOROPHYTE DIVIDED INTO ROOTS, STEMS AND LEAVES

4. SOME LEAVES BEAR A SINGLE SPORANGIUM ON THEIR UPPER
       SURFACE - SPOROPHYLL

   a. SPOROPHYLLS MAY BE NONPHOTOSYNTHETIC AND PACKED
               TOGETHER TO FORM SPIKE OR CLUB SHAPED

5. SPORE PRODUCTION IS DIFFERENT BETWEEN THE TWO GENERA:

Lycopodium - homosporus

Selaginella - heterosporus

DIVISION EQUISETOPHYTA - HORSETAILS or SCOURING RUSH

1. ONLY 1 LIVING GENUS - Equisetum

2. EPIDERMAL CELLS CONTAIN SILICA

3. SPOROPHYTE POISONOUS TO LIVESTOCK

4. HAS ROOTS, STEMS AND LEAVES

   a. LEAVES SMALL

   b. STEMS PHOTOSYNTHETIC

5. HOMOSPORUS