ALGAE

   GENERAL FEATURES
  
   GROUPS OF EUKARYOTES THAT ARE DIVIDED INTO SEVEN
   DIVISIONS

   1.  CHLOROPHYTA - GREEN ALGAE
   2.  PHAEOPHYTA - BROWN ALGAE
   3.  RHODOPHYTA - RED ALGAE
   4.  CHRYSOPHYTA - DIATOMS & GOLDEN BROWN ALGAE
   5.  EUGLENOPHYTA - EUGLENOIDS
   6.  PYRRHOPHYTA - DINOFLAGELLATES
   7.  CRYPTOPHYTA

   CAN BE DISTINGUISHED BY THEIR:

   1.  PIGMENTS
       A.  CHLOROPHYLL A
       B.  CHLOROPHYLL B
       C.  CHLOROPHYLL C
       D.  CAROTENOIDS
       E.  FUCOXANTHIN
       F.  PHYCOBILINS
       G.  PERIDIN
   2.  ENERGY STORAGE POLYMERS
       A.  STARCH
       B.  LAMINARIN
       C.  MANNITOL
       D.  PARAMYLON
   3.  CELL-WALL COMPONENTS
       A.  POLYSACCHARIDES
           1.  CELLULOSE
           2.  PECTIN
       B.  CALCIUM
   4.  NUMBER AND TYPES OF FLAGELLAE
       A.  1
       B.  2
       C.  3
       D.  NONE

VEGETATIVE ORGANIZATION

   1.  UNICELLULAR
   2.  MULTICELLULAR
       A.  COLONAL
       B.  FILAMENTOUS
       C.  MACROSCOPIC (ROOTS, STEMS, LEAVES)

           ROOTS = HOLDFAST
           STEM = STIPE
           LEAVES

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

   INVOLVES AN ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS

   REVIEW OF GENETICS
     CELLS ARE EITHER HAPLOID OR DIPLOID

     DIPLOID - TWO SETS OF GENETIC MATERIAL (ONE FROM
               MOTHER AND ONE FROM FATHER
     HAPLOID - ONE SET OF GENETIC MATERIAL

     TWO HAPLOID CELLS COMBINE TO FORM A DIPLOID CELL

     THE SPOROPHYTE GENERATION ALTERS WITH THE GAMETOPHYTE
     GENERATION

        SPOROPHYTE GENERATION PRODUCES SPORES
        GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION PRODUCES GAMETES

     THERE ARE THREE VERSIONS OF THE GENERALIZED LIFE
     CYCLE FOUND IN ALGAE

     SPORIC MEIOSIS (PLANT-LIKE)
     A. DIPLOID CELLS UNDERGO MEIOSIS AND PRODUCE SPORES
        THE DIPLOID PHASE IS A SPOROPHYTE
     B. SPORES ARE EITHER:
        1. APLANOSPORES - NONMOBILE
        2. ZOOSPORES - MOBILE
     C. SPORES ARE HAPLOID AND GROW INTO A HAPLOID
        GAMETOPHYTE WHICH PRODUCES HAPLOID GAMETES

     GAMETIC MEIOSIS (ANIMAL-LIKE) - VERY RARE
   
     CELLS OF A MULTICELLULAR DIPLOID PHASE UNDERGO
     MEIOSIS TO PRODUCE EGG AND SPERM (GAMETES -
     NOT SPORES)

     ZYGOTIC MEIOSIS (FUNGUS-LIKE) - MOST GREEN ALGAE

     ZYGOTES ARE ONLY DIPLOID CELLS
     HAPLOID PHASE RESULTS WHEN THE ZYGOTE UNDERGOES
     MEIOSIS

     DIFFERENT KINDS OF GAMETES

     THREE TYPES OF GAMETES

     1. ISOGAMOUS - HAVE ISOGAMETES - THEY APPEAR
        IDENTICAL BUT ARE NOT GENETICALLY IDENTICAL.
        THEY ARE OF TWO SEPARATE TYPES (+ OR -)

     2. ANISOGAMOUS - HAVE ANISOGAMETES - FLAGELLATED
        AND OF TWO DIFFERENT SIZES (SMALL - MALE;
        LARGE - FEMALE)

     3. OOGAMOUS - HAVE A LARGE, FEMALE, NONFLAGELLATED
        GAMETE AND ASMALL, MALE, FLAGELLATED GAMETE

     ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

     UNICELLULAR ALGAE - REPRODUCE BY MITOSIS AND
     CELL DIVISION

     MULTICELLULAR ALGAE - REPRODUCE ASEXUALLY BY
     FRAGMENTS, VEGETATIVELY FROM ROOTLIKE STRUCTURES
     OR FROM SPORES PRODUCED BY MITOSIS