THE PLANT CELL DIFFERS FROM AN ANIMAL CELL IN HAVING:
          1. CELL WALL                     
          2. LARGE CENTRAL VACUOLE
          3. CHLOROPLASTS

CELL WALL:
          MADE UP OF:
          1. CELLULOSE
          2. HEMICELLULOSE
          3. PECTIN
          4. LIGNIN
          5. PROTEIN

TWO TYPES OF CELL WALLS
          1. PRIMARY (ALL PLANT CELLS)
                  a. THIN AND FLEXIBLE
                  b. HAVE LESS CELLULOSE THAN SECONDARY CELL WALLS
          2. SECONDARY CELL WALLS
                  a. THICKER AND MORE RIGID
                  b. HAVE MORE CELLULOSE AND LIGNIN THAN PRIMARY CELL
                         WALLS

THE SECONDARY CELL WALL IS LAYED DOWN INSIDE THE PRIMARY CELL WALL

CELLS ARE CONNECTED TO EACH OTHER BY PLASMADESMATA

PLASMADESMATA ARE THIN STRANDS OF PLASMA MEMBRANE

PLASMA MEMBRANE
          1. SURROUNDS ALL CELLS
          2. PROTEIN LIPID BILAYER
          3. ACTS AS A BARRIER TO THINGS ENTERING AND LEAVING A
       CELL

THE NUCLEUS

    1. SURROUNDED BY A DOUBLE MEMBRANE CALLED THE 
       NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
    2. CONTAINS MOST OF THE CELLS DNA IN THREAD-LIKE 
       CHRMOSOMES
    3. HAVE PORES (OPENINGS) BY WHICH THINGS CAN
       PASS IN AND OUT OF THE NUCLEUS

RIBOSOMES

    1. SITES OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
    2. MADE OF PROTEIN AND RIBOSOMAL
RNA
    3. CONSIST OF TWO SUBUNITS
    4. NOT SURROUNDED BY A MEMBRANE
    5. CAN BE ATTACHED TO MEMBRANE OR FOUND FREE IN 
       THE CYTOPLASM

THE MEMBRANE SYSTEM

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)- SYSTEM OF MEMBRANES CONNECTING THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF THE NUCLEUS TO THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
          1. SMOOTH ER
                 a. NO RIBOSOMES ATTACHED
                 b. SITE OF SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND 
          ASSEMBLY OF NEW MEMBRANES
          2. ROUGH ER
                 a. SITE OF MOST PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AT THE
          RIBOSOMES

DICTYOSOMES (GOLGI BODIES)

    1. STACKS OF FLATTENED, MEMBRANOUS VESICLES
    2. RECEIVE MATERIAL FROM THE
SMOOTH ER WHICH IS
       SORTED BY THE DICTYOSOME INTO OTHER PACKET
       THAT ARE TRANSPORTED TO VARIOUS
PLACES
                 a. TRANSPORTED TO THE CELL MEMBRANE FOR TRANSPORT
                        OUTSIDE THE CELL
                        1. USED TO MAKE NEW CELL WALLS
                 b. TRANSPORTED TO THE POINT WHERE A CELL PLATE WILL
                        BE MADE

VACUOLES

CENTRAL VACUOLE BOUNDED BY A SINGLE MEMBRANE CALLED A TONOPLAST

VACUOLES FILL WITH WATER AND EXERT A PRESSURE ON THE CELL WALL. THIS PRESSURE IS TURGOR PRESSURE.

WATER --> TURGOR PRESSURE --> PLANT RIGID AND UPRIGHT

TOO LITTLE WATER --> TURGOR PRESSURE DECREASES --> PLANT WILTS.

VACUOLES CONTAIN:
          a. WATER
          b. ENZYMES
          c. PROTEINS
          d. PIGMENTS

MICROBODIES

SMALLEST MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES.

CHARACTERISTICS
:
    1. SMALL - 0.5 TO 1.5 um in
diameter
                  a. PEROXISOMES - OCCUR IN LEAVES
                          - METABOLIZE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
                          - contain catalase and oxidase
                               catalase breaks down peroxide
                               oxidase produces peroxide

                  b. GLYOXYSOMES - IN YOUNG OILBEARING SEEDS
                          - CONTAIN ENZYMES TO BREAK DOWN FATTY ACIDS
                          - RARELY OCCUR IN ANIMALS

           PLANTS CONVERT FATS TO CARBOHYDRATES

ORGANELLES FOR ENERGY CONVERSION

CHLOROPLASTS

MITOCHONDRIA

CHARACTERISTICS IN COMMON

1. BOUNDED BY A DOUBLE MEMBRANE
2. CONTAIN SOME DNA
3. CONTAIN RIBOSOMES

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHLOROPLASTS AND MITOCHONDRIA

1. SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR ATP PRODUCTION.
        a. CHLOROPLASTS - SUN
        b. MITOCHONDRIA - CHEMICAL BONDS

PRODUCE ATP (ATP = ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE)

2. COLOR
        a. CHLOROPLASTS - GREEN
        b. MITOCHONDRIA - COLORLESS
3. SIZE
        CHLOROPLASTS LARGER AND MORE IRREGULAR IN SHAPE
4. FUNCTION
       a. CHLOROPLASTS - PHOTOSYNTHESIS
       b. MITOCHONDRIA - RESPIRATION (BREAKDOWN OF
              CARBOHYDRATES)

CHLOROPLASTS
1. STRUCTURE

MITOCHONDRION

STRUCTURE

ENDOSYMBIONT THEORY
          THEORY - CHLOROPLASTS AND MITOCHONDRIA WERE ONCE
    THOUGHT TO BE
  FREELIVING BACTERIA
          1.  BACTERIA WERE ENGULFED "EATEN" BY A EUKARYOTIC CELL
          2.  CELL DID NOT DIGEST BACTERIA AND IT BECAME
      ESTABLISHED IN CELL.

SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP -

MUTUALISM
          BACTERIA BENEFIT BY BEING PROTECTED BY THE EUKARYOTIC
          CELL

    EUKARYOTIC CELL BENEFITS BY ENERGY PRODUCED BY THE
    "BACTERIA"

PRIMARY GROWTH: CELLS AND TISSUES

GROUND TISSUE - MAKES UP THE MAJORITY OF THE PLANT (CORTEX AND PITH); IS COVERED BY THE EPIDERMIS AND SURROUNDS THE VASCULAR TISSUE.

FUNCTIONS:

1. STORAGE
2. BASIC METABOLISM
3. SUPPORT

CELL TYPES

1. PARENCHYMA - MOST ABUNDANT CELL TYPE   
       a. THIN PRIMARY CELL WALLS
       b. NO SECONDARY WALLS
       c. LIVING WHEN FUNCTIONAL  

   SPECIALIZED PARENCHYMA CELLS ARE:
        a. CHLORENCHYMA
               i. CHLORENCHYMA CELLS CONTAIN CHLOROPLASTS
        b. ARENCHYMA
               i. ARENCHYMA CELLS CONTAIN LARGE, INTERCELLULAR SPACES

2. COLLENCHYMA -
       a. HAVE UNEVENLY THICKENED PRIMARY CELL WALLS
       b. LACK SECONDARY CELL WALLS
       c. PROVIDE FLEXIBLE SUPPORT
       d. ALIVE WHEN FUNCTIONAL

3. SCLERENCHYMA -
       a. HAVE RIGID, THICK,SECONDARY CELL WALLS
       b. PROVIDE RIGID SUPPORT
       c. DEAD WHEN FUNCTIONAL

TWO TYPES OF SCLERENCHYMA CELLS

1. SCLERIDS -
       a. SHORT
       b. VARIABLE IN SHAPE AND SIZE
       c. OCCUR SINGLY OR IN SMALL GROUPS
       d. GIVE PEARS THEIR GRITTY TEXTURE
       e. MAKE UP SHELLS

2. FIBERS
       a. LONG, SLENDER CELLS
       b. OCCUR IN SINGLE STRANDS OR IN BUNDLES

FIBER CLASSIFICATION

1. LOCATION
       a. XYLARY FIBERS
       b. EXTRAXYLARY FIBERS
2. HARDNESS
       a. HARD
              i. ROPE
       b. SOFT
             i. LINEN

DERMAL TISSUE

COVERS THE PLANT BODY. IS THE EPIDERMIS

FUNCTIONS:
       1. ABSORBS WATER AND MINERALS
       2. SECRETES CUTICLE
       3. PROTECTS AGAINST HERBIVORES
       4. CONTROLS GAS EXCHANGE

CUTICLE - WATERPROOF SUBSTANCE CALLED CUTIN IS MAJOR
                         COMPONENT.
    1. FUNCTIONS TO PROTECT AGAINST WATER LOSS
              a. VARIES IN THICKNESS IN RESPONSE TO THE ENVIRONMENT
                     i. DRY ENVIRONMENT - THICK CUTICLE
                     ii. WET ENVIRONMENT - THIN CUTICLE
      2. MAY FUNCTION IN PROTECTION FROM PLANT MICROBES.
                     i. MAY BE COVERED WITH A LAYER OF EPICUTICULAR
           WAX.
  CARNUBA WAX COMES FROM THE UNDERSIDE OF A
           PALM LEAF
(USED AS A CAR WAX)
      3. PROTECTION FROM HERBIVORES

     TRICHOMES FUNCTION IN PROTECTION
                    TRICHOMES ARE SINGLE-CELLED OR MULICELLED
        OUTGROWTHS OF EPIDERMAL CELLS
                  1. DETER HERBIVORES JUST BY THEIR DENSITY
       2. MECHANICAL - IMPALE
PREDATORS
                         a. HOOK SHAPED
                         b. SPEAR SHAPED
       3. STICKY - IMMOBILIZE PREY
       4. INJECT CAUSTIC CHEMICALS

  4. GAS EXCHANGE - OXYGEN EXITS AND CARBON DIOXIDE ENTERS
            THROUGH OPENINGS IN THE EPIDERMAL LAYER

            STOMATAL APPARATUS CONSISTS OF A STOMA, GUARD CELLS &
     SUBSIDIARY CELLS

     STOMA = OPENING
     GUARD CELLS = REGULATE STOMA SIZE; CONTAIN
          CHLOROPLASTS

COVER <1% OF LEAF SURFACE

MOST ABUNDANT ON THE LOWER SURFACES OF THE LEAVES BUT CAN OCCUR ON UPPER SURFACES.

LOCATION DEPENDS ON LEAF ENVIRONMENT.

WATER PLANTS:

STOMATES ON UPPER SURFACE

SUN PLANTS:

STOMATES ON LOWER SURFACE