PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION

    PLANT GROWTH IS INDETERMINATE
          INDETERMINATE GROWTH IS GROWTH THAT IS OPEN ENDED

    SIZE AND AGE OF THE PLANT IS

DETERMINED BY ENVIRONMENT:

    1. DROUGHT
          2. DISEASE

FEW PLANTS DIE OF OLD AGE

PLANT GROWTH RESTRICTED TO

MERISTEMS

THREE TYPES OF MERISTEMS

1. APICAL - OCCURS AT THE TIPS OF ROOTS AND SHOOTS
2. LATERAL - PRODUCE SECONDARY GROWTH
3. INTERCALARY - USUALLY RESTRICTED TO GRASSES

APICAL MERISTEMS

1. FOUND AT THE TIPS OF ROOTS AND SHOOTS
2. PRODUCE CELLS TO LENGTHEN THE SHOOT OR ROOT
3. CHARACTERISTICS:
       a. THIN WALLS
       b. PROMINENT NUCLEI
       c. SMALL VACUOLES
4. FUNCTIONS:
       a. ESTABLISH PATTERNS (ie, ESTABLISH LEAF ARRANGEMENT)
       b. PRODUCE NEW, GENETICALLY HEALTHY CELLS
              CELLS YOUNG, LITTLE GENETIC MISINFORMATION

DERIVATIVES OF MERISTEMS:

1. PROTODERM - GIVES RISE TO THE EPIDERMIS
2. PROCAMBIUM - GIVES RISE TO THE VASCULAR TISSUE
3. GROUND MERISTEM - GIVES RISE TO THE GROUND TISSUES

LATERAL MERISTEMS - RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INCREASE IN WIDTH OF
A PLANT

PRODUCE SECONDARY GROWTH
     1. VASCULAR CAMBIUM MAKES WOOD

     LOCATED BETWEEN THE XYLEM AND PHLOEM

  2. CORK CAMBIUM (PHELLOGEN)

     LOCATED BETWEEN THE PHLOEM AND THE BARK

INTERCALARY MERISTEMS - OFTEN FOUND AT THE BASE OF A GRASS BLADE.

     FUNCTION: INSURES THAT THE PLANT CONTINUES TO GROW EVEN
            WHEN THE APEX IS REMOVED

     a. GRAZING ANIMALS
             b. LAWNMOWERS

PRIMARY GROWTH: STEMS AND LEAVES

STEMS - COMPOSED OF NODES AND INTERNODES

   NODES - WHERE LEAVES ATTACH TO THE STEM
       INTERNODES - STEM LENGTH BETWEEN THE NODES

FUNCTIONS

1. SUPPORT LEAVES
2. PRODUCE CARBOHYDRATES (ARE
GREEN SO THEY ARE PHOTOSYNTHETIC)
3. STORE MATERIALS
4. TRANSPORT SOLUTES AND WATER BETWEEN ROOTS AND LEAVES

STRUCTURE OF STEMS:

STEMS ARE COMPOSED OF:

1. EPIDERMAL TISSUE
2. GROUND TISSUE
3. VASCULAR TISSUE

EPIDERMIS:
      1. ONE CELL LAYER THICK
      2. MAY CONTAIN TRICHOMES

VASCULAR TISSUE:
      1. OCCURS IN BUNDLES
             a. MONOCOT BUNDLES SCATTERED (LOOK LIKE MONKEY FACES)
             b. DICOT BUNDLES ARRANGED IN RINGS

GROUND TISSUE:

IN DICOTS:

     a. THE CORTEX BETWEEN THE EPIDERMIS AND THE RING OF
        VASCULAR TISSUE.
            b. THE PITH AT THE CENTER OF THE STEM.

2. IN MONOCOTS:

     a. THE CORTEX SURROUNDS THE VASCULAR BUNDLES