Chapter 29 EXCRETION

DOWNLOAD an Adobe Acrobat version of the chapter outline 3 slides/page

DOWNLOAD an Adobe Acrobat version of the chapter outline 6 slides/page

 

review questions

Background from Introductory Biology Courses

  1. Online Learning Center for Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology
    1. Chapter 20 Excretion
    2. check out the other resources such as the study outline, flash cards, animations, etc.
  2. On-Line Biology Book by M. J. Farabee 
    1.  Excretory System
  3. Kimball's Biology Pages
    1. Excretion in Mammals, the Kidney from Kimball's Biology Pages
  4. The Kidney from Wikipedia

Videos shown in lecture

  1. Dr. Wendy Riggs on fluid flow through the Loop of Henle and the vasa recta.
  2. The Kidney & the Counter Current Multiplier: Pharmacology teaching at Aston University

  1. The Mammalian Excretory System consists of
    1. The Kidney
    2. ureter
    3. bladder
    4. urethra
  2. Vertebrate kidneys have six roles in homeostasis
    1. Ion balance
    2. Osmotic balance
    3. Blood pressure
    4. pH balance
    5. Excretion
    6. Hormone production
  3. The mammalian nephron consists of following functional parts
    1. Bowman's Capsule
    2. Proximal Convoluted Tubule
    3. Loop of Henle
    4. Distal Convoluted Tubule
    5. Surrounded by a specific vasculature
  4.    
    1. Kidney Structure
      1. Cortex
      2. Medulla

       

    2. More from from wikipedia

      1. Renal pyramid  --> 2. Interlobular artery --> 3. Renal artery --> 4. Renal vein 5. Renal hilum --> 6. Renal pelvis --> 7. Ureter --> 8. Minor calyx --> 9. Renal capsule --> 10. Inferior renal capsule --> 11. Superior renal capsule --> 12. Interlobular vein --> 13. Nephron --> 14. Minor calyx --> 15. Major calyx --> 16. Renal papilla --> 17. Renal column

     

    1. Terrestrial Animals
      1. Animals that produce more concentrated urine have a longer loop of Henle and a thicker medulla
    2. Fundamentals of Excretion
      1. About 20-25% of the total cardiac output goes to the kidneys
    3. Urine Production
      1. (Ultra)Filtration
      2. : hydrostatic pressure-driven flow
        1. primary urine
      3. Reabsorption
      4. Secretion:
      5. Excretion
        1. definitive urine
    4. NEPHRON (see picture below)
    5. Renal Corpuscle
      1. Blood pressure forces fluid from the blood in the glomerulus into the lumen of Bowman�s capsule
      2. Ultrafiltration is non-selective
    6. Tubule Regions
      1. Proximal tubule --> reabsorption begins
      2. Loop of Henle --> most reabsorption occurs; divided into the descending limb, the loop, and the ascending limb
      3. Distal tubule --> reabsorption is completed for most solutes
      4. Collecting duct --> drains multiple nephrons
    7. Reabsorption and Secretion
      1. Primary urine is isosmotic to blood
      2. Most water and salt is reabsorbed
      3. Secretory products: K+, NH4+, H+, pharmaceuticals, and water-soluble vitamins
      4. Each zone of the nephron possess specific transporters
    8. Proximal Convoluted Tubule
    9. Loop of Henle
      1. Descending limb
      2. Ascending Limb
        1. thin
        2. thick
      3. Vasa recta
    10. Distal Convoluted Tubule
    11. Collecting duct

     

     

  5. Regulation of Urinary Function
    1. Endocrine hormones affect kidney function
    2. Diuretics
    3. Antidiuretics
  6. Vertebrate Kidney: Structure and basic function
  7. BOX 29.2 How Renal Function is Studied
  8. The rate at which the kidney filters blood plasma is called the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
  9. Inulin and Creatine are used to measure GFR
  10. V x U = GFR x P
  11. Solving for GFR (Vfiltrate)
  12. Clearance measurements
    1. C = GFR = Vurine* (U / P)
    2. Urine flow: Vurine = 1.2 ml/min
    3. ammonia in urine: = 0.0025 mg/ml
    4. NH3 in plasma = 0.00002 mg/ml
    5. GFR = 1.2 * 1.25 = 150 ml/min
    6. 0.0005 mg/ml has been secreted
  13. Example for Glucose
    1. Normal plasma glucose = 1 mg/ml
    2. Urine flow: V = 1.2 ml/min
    3. glucose in urine: = 0 mg/ml
    4. If glucose in plasma = 3 mg/ml
    5. C = GFR = V * (U / P) = 0 = 100% resorption
    6. Filtration rate is 125 ml/min
    7. 375 mg/min of glucose is resorbed
    8. 125 ml/min * 3 mg/ml
  14. Tubular maximum
  15. Alcohol and Caffeine.
    1. Antidiuretic Hormone (Vasopressin)
  16. Diabetes insipidus
  17. Figure 29.22 The posterior gut and Malpighian tubules of an insect
    1. The Malpighian tubule is the insect equivalent to the vertebrate kidney
    2. Primary urine is formed by secretion, not filtration
  18. Figure 29.22 The posterior gut and Malpighian tubules of an insect
    1. Malpighian tubules are unique to terrestrial arthropods
    2. System has up to 200 tubules that open into hindgut (with the other end blind in the hemocoele).
    3. Primary urine is formed by secretion, not filtration
  19. Fig. 29.22: Excretion in Insects
  20. Excretion in Insects
  21. Fig. 29.24 Nitrogen Excretion
    1. Ammonia produced during amino acid breakdown is toxic and must be excreted
    2. Ammonia (ammonioteles)
    3. Urea (ureoteles)
    4. Uric acid (uricoteles)
    5. Form of Nitrogenous waste is related to reproductive strategy and habitat
  22. Nitrogen Excretion: General
  23. Nitrogen Excretion: Ammonia
  24. Nitrogen Excretion: Urea
  25. Nitrogen Excretion: Uric Acid
  26. role of the cloaca
  27. Gout

-

Return to:
 

Biology II Syllabus

Baskin Home Page

Biology Home Page