This is what you should have learned in high school about reproduction, from Jim Buckley, Edwards-Knox Central School, Russell, New York.  Try Mr. Buckley's quiz on human reproduction for his high school students.

If you don't have your textbook, here is the Reproductive System from the On-line Biology book.

to learn more about the human Reproductive System, go to HUMAN ANATOMY On-Line.


ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION in INVERTEBRATES

1. FISSION

2. BUDDING

3. FRAGMENTATION

4. PARTHENOGENESIS

ADVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

DISADVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION


SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

External Fertilization

Internal Fertilization

Reproductive Timing

PATTERNS OF VERTEBRATE REPRODUCTION


Human Reproduction

When you are finished with this section, test your knowledge with the Human Reproduction Problem Set from the University of Arizona Biology Project


 

HUMAN MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM [Fig. 39.4]

PRODUCTION OF SPERM IN TESTES [Fig. 39.5]

Path of Sperm [Fig. 39.4]

Penis

Semen Production

  1. seminal vessicles
  2. prostate gland
  3. Cowper's glands (bulbourethral glands)

MALE HORMONAL CONTROL [Fig. 39.6; Table 39.1]

androgens: male sex hormones

  1. hypothalamus gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH); stimulates anterior pituitary
  2. anterior pituitary LH (controls production of testosterone in males) and FSH (promotes spermatogenesis in males w/testosterone)
  3. testes: interstitial cells stimulated to produce male sexual hormone testosterone; influences male sexual characters - beard, voice, bone growth, sperm production (w/FSH)

HUMAN FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM [Fig. 39.7]


HORMONAL REGULATION of REPRODUCTION [Table 39.2, 39.3]

Ovarian Cycle [Fig. 39.7]


Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle [Fig. 39.11, 39.12]
A.    first day: menstruation: shedding of endometrium + blood, tissue, other fluids
B.    14th day: ovulation
  1. 1. Preovulatory Phase
    1. FSH (from pituitary) stimulates follicle to develop
      1. follicle: ova plus surrounding cells - makes estrogen
    2. estrogen: stimulates growth of endometrium
  2. mid-cycle
        surge of estrogen stimulates hypothalamus to stimulate pituitary to secrete LH
        which causes
        maturation of follicle, ovulation, & development of corpus luteum
    1. ovulation: stimulated by FSH and LH from anterior pituitary
    2. follicle: produces ovum
    3. corpus luteum (yellow body): remains in ovary after ovulation; controlled by LH
    4. ovum
  3. Postovulatory Phase
    1. corpus luteum releases estrogen & progesterone; inhibits LH and FSH production; stimulates thickening of endometrium (esp. progesterone)
    2. egg not fertilized no implantation:
      1. corpus luteum degenerates (as a result of fall of LH & FSH)
      2. estrogen and progesterone decrease
      3. arteries in uterine wall constrict; cells die causing menstruation
    3. return to preovulatory phase; pituitary secretes FSH again

Fertilization [fig 39.13-15]
Introduction to the Birth Control Problem Set from the University of Arizona Biology Project
  1. occurs in upper uterine wall from one sperm only
  2. embryo implants in uterine wall formation of placenta
  3. placenta: 
    1. secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) which causes the
    2. corpus luteum to continue to function 
    3. LH secretion ceases
    4. progesterone secreted by corpus luteum (as well as estrogen) prevents menstruation
    5. after 3rd month corpus luteum degenerates, but placenta secretes estrogen & progesterone.

Birth Control - Contraception

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