CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

  1. Textbook website
    1. Online Learning Center for Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology
      1. chapter 15 resources 
      2. chapter/quizzes/ch15
      3. check out the other resources such as the study outline, flash cards, animations, etc.
      4. use the other course tools for chapter 15
  2. On-Line Biology Book by M. J. Farabee 
    1.  Circulatory System
      1. vertebrate cardiovascular system
      2. Vertebrate vascular systems
      3. The heart
      4. the vascular system
  3. Kimball's Biology Pages
    1. Anatomy of the Circulatory System from Kimball's Biology Pages
    2. Heartbeat from Kimball's Biology Pages
  4. This is what you should have learned in high school about circulation, from Jim Buckley, Edwards-Knox Central School, Russell, New York.  Try Mr. Buckley's quiz on human circulation and the quiz on the human heart for his high school students.
  5. more detailed information from Frank Orme, Chabot College Human Physiology  Class notes on the Cardiovascular system, Circulation and Heart as a Pump 

INTERNAL TRANSPORT and CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS

vascular systems [Fig. 36.1]

TRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN INVERTEBRATES


Chapter Outline

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 

  1. Introduction
    1. Cardiovascular system [Fig. 15.1]
  2. Structure of the Heart
    1. Size and Location of the Heart [Figs. 15.2, 15.3]
    2. Coverings of the Heart [Fig. 15.4]
      1. pericardium
        1. fibrous pericardium
        2. visceral pericardium
        3. parietal pericardium
        4. pericardial cavity
        5. serous fluid
    3. Wall of the Heart  [Fig. 15.5; Table 15.1]
      1. epicardium
      2. myocardium
      3. endocardium
    4. Heart Chambers and Valves [Figs. 15.6, 15.7, 15.9]
      1. atria
        1. right atrium and the left atrium.
        2. auricles
        3. interatrial septum
      2. right ventricle and the left ventricle.
        1. interventricular septum
      3. atrioventricular orifice
        1. A-V valve.
      4. atrioventricular sulcus
      5. superior and inferior vena cavae and the coronary sinus.
      6. Valves of the Heart [Figs. 15.8, 15.9; Table 15.2]
        1. tricuspid valve
        2. Chordae tendinae
        3. Papillary muscles
        4. pulmonary valve
        5. mitral valve
      7. aorta.
      8. aortic valve
      9. tricuspid and mitral valves are also called A-V valves
      10. The pulmonary and aortic valves are also called semilunar valves
    5. Skeleton of the Heart [Fig. 15.9]
    6. Path of Blood Through the Heart  [Figs. 15.10, 15.11]
      1. Blood from systemic circuit
      2. Vena cavae
      3. right atrium
      4. tricuspid valve
      5. right ventricle
      6. pulmonary valve
      7. pulmonary trunk.
      8. pulmonary arteries.
      9. lung capillaries.
      10. Pulmonary veins
      11. left atrium
      12. mitral valve
      13. left ventricle.
      14. aortic valve
      15. aorta
      16. systemic circuit
    7. Blood Supply to the Heart  [Figs. 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15]
      1. left and right coronary arteries.
      2. circumflex artery
      3. anterior interventricular artery
      4. posterior interventricular artery
      5. marginal artery
      6. Cardiac veins
      7. coronary sinus
  3. Heart Actions
    1. Introduction
      1. Atrial systole
      2. Ventricular diastole
      3. Atrial diastole
      4. Ventricular systole
    2. Cardiac Cycle   [Figs. 15.16]
    3. Heart Sounds  [Figs. 15.7, 15.18]
      1. lubb dupp
      2. murmur
    4. Cardiac Muscle Fibers
    5. Cardiac Conduction System   [Figs. 15.19, 15.20, 15.21]
      1. Sinoatrial or S-A node
        1. pacemaker
        2. atrial syncytium, junctional fibers
      2. atrioventricular or A-V node
      3.  A-V bundle
      4. Purkinje fibers
    6. Electrocardiogram  [Figs. 15.22, 15.23]
      1. electrocardiogram or ECG
        1. P-wave
        2. QRS-wave
        3.  T-wave
    7. Regulation of Cardiac Cycle   [Fig. 15.24]
      1. parasympathetic nerve
      2. vagus nerve
      3. Sympathetic fibers.
    8. Arrythmias [Box 15.1]
      1. fibrillation
      2. brachycardia
      3. tachcardia
      4. atrial flutter
  4. Blood Vessels [Table 15.3]
    1. Introduction
    2. arteries and arterioles  [Figs. 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28]
      1. vasoconstriction
      2. vasodilation
    3. capillaries [Figs. 15.29, 15.30]
      1. Introduction
      2. Capillary Permeability
      3. Capillary Arrangement
      4. Regulation of Capillary Blood Flow
      5. Exchanges in the Capillaries [Fig. 15.31]
    4. venules and veins. [Figs. 15.32, 15.34]
      1. venous valves [Fig. 15.33]
    5. Altering angiogenesis [Box 15.2]
  5. Blood Pressure
    1. Introduction
    2. Arterial Blood Pressure
      1. Systolic pressure
      2. Diastolic pressure
      3. pulse [Fig. 15.35]
    3. Measuring Blood Pressure [Box 15.3]
    4. Factors that Influence Arterial Blood Pressure [Fig. 15.36]
      1. Heart Action
        1. stroke volume
        2. cardiac output
      2. Blood Volume
      3. Peripheral Resistance
      4. Viscosity
    5. Control of Blood Pressure
      1. End Diastolic Volume
      2. End Systolic Volume
      3. Starling’s Law of the Heart
    6. Venous Blood Flow
    7. Central Venous Pressure
  6. Paths of Circulation
    1. pulmonary circuit [Fig. 15.42]
    2. systemic circuit
  7. Arterial System
  8. Venous System
  9. Life-Span Changes

VERTEBRATE BLOOD VESSELS

  1. heart: atria and ventricles
  2. arteries [fig 36.6A] arterioles
  3. capillaries [fig 36.6c] veinules
  4. veins [fig 36.6b]

THE VERTEBRATE HEART and CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

THE HUMAN HEART (fig 36.9)

  • your heart and how it works from the American Heart Association
  • the heart from the Frankin Institute
  • to learn more about the circulatory system try this site from HUMAN ANATOMY On-Line.  In the window on the left of this web page click on the pictorial representation of the cardiovascular system or choose it from the menu on the right.  Once in, explore the many features of the site.  Try the animation of the beating heart.  Click on the markers on the images to learn more.  Use this site to gain more information about other organ systems.

 

Heart2.gif (43052 bytes)

image courtesy of BIODIDAC
click on image to enlarge

PULMONARY CIRCUIT
  • vena cavae --> right atrium tricuspid (AV) valve --> right ventricle --> semilunar valve -->  pulmonary arteries --> pulmonary capillaries --> pulmonary veins --> left atrium.
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
  • left atrium -->  bicuspid (AV) valve --> left ventricle --> semilunar valve --> aorta --> coronary arteries, carotid subclavian, mesenteric, renal, iliac arteries, etc. --> arterioles --> capillaries --> veinules --> veins --> inferior & superior vena cavae --> right atrium.



image courtesy of BIODIDAC

Control of Heartbeat [Fig. 36.10]
Heart Sounds
  1. Electrocardiogram
  2. Systemic Blood Flow
  3. systole
  4. diastole
  5. pulse
  6. blood pressure

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM (fig 36.8, Table 36.1)

to learn more about the lymphatic system, go to HUMAN ANATOMY On-Line.

Gas Exchange and Transport

Transport of O2

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