Chapter   2 - Chemical Foundations for life

DOWNLOAD an  Adobe pdf version of the chapter outline

RESOURCES

  1. Textbook website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 2.
  2. STARR and TAGGART 9th edition website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 2.
  3. STARR AN TAGGART 10th edition website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 2.
  4. On-Line Biology Book by M. J. Farabee 
    1. Atoms and Molecules
    2. Water
  5. Kimball's Biology Pages
    1. Elements and Atoms from Kimball's Biology Pages
    2. Mixtures and Compounds from Kimball's Biology Pages
    3. Electronegativity and types of bonds from Kimball's Biology Pages
    4. Noncovalent bonding from Kimball's Biology Pages
    5. Hydrogen Bonds from Kimball's Biology Pages
    6. pH from Kimball's Biology Pages
    7. Acids and bases from Kimball's Biology Pages
  6. The Biology Project, an interactive online resource for learning biology, developed at The University of Arizona
    1. Basic Chemistry for Understanding Biology 
    2. Chemical bonds and attractive forces
    3. The Chemistry of Water
    4. Acids and Bases problem set
  7. MIT Biology Hypertext Chemistry Review
    1. Chemical Bonds
    2. pH

Chapter Outline

2.0 -- INTRODUCTION to BASIC CHEMISTRY

  1. molecular biology
  2. bioremediation [fig. 2.1]

2.1 -- REGARDING ATOMS

  1. Structure of Atoms
    1. Matter
    2. elements
    3. elements in organisms [table 2.1]
    4. trace elements
    5. atom
    6. subatomic particles [fig. 2.3]
    7. nucleus - protons and neutrons
    8. electrons
    9. atomic number and mass number
  2. Isotopes–Variant Forms of Atoms
    1. Isotopes
    2. radioisotopes

2.2 USING RADIOISOTOPES TO TRACK CHEMICALS AND SAVE LIVES

  1. Tracers
  2. carbon-14 to work out Calvin cycle, dating the past
  3. nuclear medicine
  4. Scans of thyroid gland (Fig. 2.4)
  5. Positron Emission Tomography (Pet scan) (Fig. 2.5)

2.3 WHAT HAPPENS WHEN ATOM BONDS WITH ATOM?

  1. Electrons and Energy Levels
    1. Energy - ability to do work
    2. Chemical Properties
    3. Electrons occupy orbitals [fig. 2.7]neutral atom
    4. Shell (Bohr) model [fig. 2.8]
    5. octet rule [fig. 2.8]
    6. Chemical bonds
  2. From Atoms to Molecules
    1. Molecule
    2. Compound.
      1. chemical formula
      2. structural formula
      3. structural isomers
    3. chemical bookkeeping [fig 2.9]
    4. mixture

2.4 IMPORTANT BONDS IN BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

  1. Chemical Bonds
    1. electron shells, valence electrons, noble gases
  2. Ionic Bonding [fig. 2.10]
    1. electron donors and acceptors
    2. ions (anions and cations)
    3. dissociation
  3. Covalent Bonds [fig. ]
    1. single, double, and triple bonds
    2. polar covalent bonds 
    3. nonpolar
  4. Hydrogen bonds [figs. 2.11, 2.12]

2.5 PROPERTIES of WATER

  1. H-bonding [fig. 2.13b] 
  2. Polarity of the Water Molecule [fig. 2.13a]
    1. hydrophilic (polar) substances: attracted to water
    2. Hydrophobic (nonpolar): cluster together, insoluble in water
  3. Resists changes in temperature (temperature stabilization)
    1. specific heat - calorie
  4. resists changes in state: high specific heat
  5. less dense as solid than liquid [fig. 2.14]
  6. Adheres and is Cohesive [fig. 2.15]
  7. universal solvent [fig. 2.16] - hydration
  8. transports polar molecules; facilitates chemical reactions

 

2.6 ACIDS,  BASES, and BUFFERS

  1. pH scale [fig. 2.17]
    1. Acid - proton donor (H+)
    2. base (alkali) proton acceptor (usually hydroxyl ion OH-)
    3. pH values
    4. acid deposition (rain) [fig. 2.18]
  2. Buffers
    1. resist pH changes
    2. accept or donate H ions
    3. Buffer system consists of a weak acid and salt of acid or weak base and salt of base
    4. homeostasis of blood
  3. Salts
    1. Acid + Base --> Salt + Water

KEY TERMS FOR CHAPTER 2

-

Return to:
 

Biology 1306 Syllabus

Baskin Home Page

Biology Home Page