Chapter   4 - Cell Structure and Function

DOWNLOAD an  Adobe pdf version of the chapter outline

RESOURCES

  1. Textbook website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 4.
  2. STARR and TAGGART 9th edition website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 4.
  3. STARR AN TAGGART 10th edition website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 4.
  4. On-Line Biology Book by M. J. Farabee 
    1. Cells: Origins
    2. microscopes
    3. Cellular Organization
  5. Kimball's Biology Pages
    1. Animal Cells from Kimball's Biology Pages
    2. The Plant Cell from Kimball's Biology Pages
    3. The Nucleus from Kimball's Biology Pages
    4. The Golgi Apparatus from Kimball's Biology Pages
    5. Lysosomes and Peroxisomes from Kimball's Biology Pages
    6. Ribosomes from Kimball's Biology Pages
    7. Junctions Between Cells from Kimball's Biology Pages
    8. The Cytoskeleton from Kimball's Biology Pages
    9. Cilia and Flagella from Kimball's Biology Pages
  6. The Biology Project  an interactive online resource for learning biology, developed at The University of Arizona
    1. Studying Cells 
    2. Major Events in Cell Biology
    3. The Cytoskeleton
    4. Prokaryotic Cells
    5. Eukaryotic Cells
  7. MIT Biology Hypertext Cell Biology
    1. Cell Basics
    2. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
    3. Organelles
  8. Cells Alive!  
  9.  The Cell from Clarenville High's best Biology 2201 class
  10. ThinkQuest Interactive Tour of the Cell
  11. Inside a Cell from the Genetics Science Learning Center, University of Utah

Chapter Outline

4.0 -- Animacules and Cells Fill'd with Juices

  1. Early observations revealed an unseen world
    1. Galileo saw the facets of an insect's eyes.
    2. Robert Hooke saw small compartments in cork, which he named cells.
    3. Van Leeuwenhoek observed several types of living cells, including sperm. (Fig. 4.1)
    4. 1838-39--Schleiden, Schwann: all living things are made of cells 
    5. 1855--Virchow: cells give rise to other cells; even multicellular organisms begin as single cells.
  2. Cell Theory
    1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells
    2. The cell is the smallest unit having the properties of life. (Fig. 4.2)
    3. The continuity of life arises directly from the growth and division of single cells.

4.1 BASIC ASPECTS OF CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 

Structural Organization of Cells 

  1. plasma membrane [fig 4.3] 
    1. Lipid bilayer
    2. Proteins in the plasma membrane
  2. Nucleus or nucleoid
  3. Cytoplasm and Nucleoplasm
  4. Eukaryotic cells
  5. Prokaryotic cells 

Cell Size and Cell Shape 

4.2 MICROSCOPES--GATEWAYS TO THE CELL 

  1. microscopes
    1. light microscope
    2. TEM 
    3. SEM 
  2. magnification vs. resolving power [resolution]

4.3 DEFFINING FEATURES OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS 

Major Cellular Components[Table 4-1] 

  1. membrane bound nucleus with chromosomes 
  2. membrane bound organelles 
  3. Non-membrane bound structures 

Which Organelles are Typical of Plants [fig. 4.8a, 4.9]

Which Organelles are Typical of Animals [fig. 4.8b, 4.10]

4.4 THE NUCLEUS 

  1. nucleus: the control center of the cell [fig. 4-11, table 4.2]
  2. Strucures
    1. Nuclear Envelope 
    2. Nuclear Pores [fig 4.12]
    3. Chromatin: DNA and associated protein;
    4. Chromosomes
    5. Nucleolus 
  3. What Happens to the Proteins Specified by the DNA 
    1. Ribosomes

4.5 THE CYTOMEMBRANE SYSTEM [fig. 4.13]: 

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum [fig. 4-14] 
    1. rough ER
    2. smooth ER
  2. Golgi Bodies [fig. 4.15]
  3. Variety of Vessicles
    1. Lysosomes
    2. Microbodies
      1. peroxisomes 

4.6 ENERGY-RELATED ORGANELLES- -MITOCHONDRIA [fig. 4.16]

4.7 SPECIALIZED PLANT ORGANELLES 

  1. Plastids: Energy Traps and Storage Sacs 
    1. Chloroplasts [fig. 4.18]
    2. amyloplasts (leucoplasts): store starch (colorless) 
    3. chromoplasts
  2. Central Vacuoles 

Origin of Energy-Related Organelles in Eukaryotic Cells: Endosymbiotic theory

4.8 COMPONENTS OF THE CYTOSKELETON 

  1. Microtubules -- tubulin dimers [fig 4.19a]
    1. Microtubule Organizing Center [MTOC]
    2. Centrioles
    3. Taxol, colchicine
  2. Microfilaments [fig. 4.19c]
    1. actin
  3. Mysosin and Other Accessory Proteins
  4. Intermediate Filaments

4.9 THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF CELL MOTILITY

  1. Cilia [fig. 4.20b]
  2. Flagella [fig 4.20a]
  3. (9 + 2) arrangement of microtubules; outer 9 paired w/dynein arms; ATP causes dynein to attach to the doublet in front of it and cause bending [Fig. 4.21] 

4.10 CELL SURFACE SPECIALIZATIONS 

Eukaryotic Cell Walls [fig. 4.23, 4.24] 

  1. Extracellular matrix in plants (cellulose), algae (cellulose), fungi (chitin)
  2. Plant Cell Wall [fig 4.24b
  3. Matrixes Between Animal Cells 
  4. Cell to Cell Junctions
    1. Animal Cells (Fig. 4.26) 
      1. Adhering junction (spot desmosome)
      2. tight junction
      3. gap junction
    2. Plant Cells
      1. plasmodesmata [Fig. 4.24b]

4.11 PROKARYOTIC CELLS THE BACTERIA

  1.  Archaea and Eubacteria (bacteria and cyanobacteria) 
  2. Structure (Fig 4.27) 
    1. 1. plasma membrane 
    2. Cell wall: peptidoglycan 
    3. capsule
    4. flagella
    5. pilli
    6. nuleoid
    7. DNA
    8. plasmids
    9. ribosomes

KEY TERMS FOR CHAPTER 4

-

Return to:
 

Biology 1306 Syllabus

Baskin Home Page

Biology Home Page