CELLULAR RESPIRATION

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RESOURCES

  1. Textbook website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 7.
  2. STARR and TAGGART 9th edition website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 8.
  3. STARR AN TAGGART 10th edition website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 8.
  4. On-Line Biology Book by M. J. Farabee 
    1. Cellular Respiration
  5. Kimball's Biology Pages
    1. Glycolysis from Kimball's Biology Pages
    2. Cellular Respiration from Kimball's Biology Pages
  6. The Biology Project  an interactive online resource for learning biology, developed at The University of Arizona
    1. Metabolism Problem Set
  7. MIT Biology Hypertext Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle
  8. North Harris College
    1. Glycolysis  
    2. ATP production

Chapter Outline

HOW CELLS RELEASE STORED ENERGY

8.1 HOW DO CELLS MAKE ATP

 Energy Releasing Pathways 

  1. Catabolism --> ATP 
    1. Energy Releasing Pathways begin with glycolysis [fig 8.2]
      1. aerobic respiration
        • C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O --> 6CO2 + 12H2O + 36ATP 
      2. anaerobic respiration
        1. anaerobic electron transport
        2. fermentation

Overview of Aerobic Respiration [Fig 8.3] 

  1. Glycolysis 
  2. Formation of acetyl Coenzyme A 
  3. The Krebs or citric acid cycle 
  4. the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis 

8.2 GLYCOLYSIS

  1. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and eukaryotes (Fig. 8.4) 
  2. Glucose + 2ATP > 2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2NADH
  3. if O is available, pyruvate enters the mitochondrion (stage 5) 
  4. if O is not available, glycolysis proceeds to fermentation (stage 11)

8.3 SECOND STAGE OF THE AEROBIC PATHWAY 

  1. Pyruvate enters the mitochondrion 
  2. Preparatory step 
  3. Krebs Cycle [Fig. 8.6]
    1.  acetyl CoA + oxaloacetate --> citrate (citric acid)
    2. H atoms removed (transferred to carriers [2NAD, 6FAD]) 
    3. 2 CO2 lost 
    4. --> 1ATP/pyruvate (2 total) 

8.4 THIRD STAGE OF THE AEROBIC PATHWAY 

  1. electron transport system [fig. 8.7] 
  2. chemiosmatic phosphorylation --> 32 ATP
  3. aerobic respiration --> 36 ATP total [Fig. 8.8]

8.5 ANAEROBIC ROUTES 

  1. fermentation 
    1. Functions
      1. oxidation of NADH to NAD+
      2. needed for glycolysis to proceed
    2. pathways
      1. lactate fermentation [fig 8.9]
      2. alcoholic fermentation [Fig. 8.10]
      3. anaerobic electron transport

8.6 Energy from fats and proteins 


KEY TERMS FOR CHAPTER 8

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