Chapter 9 - MITOSIS and MEIOSIS

DOWNLOAD an Adobe Acrobat version of the chapter outline

CELL CYCLE and MITOSIS RESOURCES

  1. Textbook website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 9.
  2. STARR and TAGGART 9th edition website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 9 and 10.
  3. STARR AN TAGGART 10th edition website:
    1. outline, quiz, and flash cards: select from resources for chapter 9 and 10.
  4. On-Line Biology Book by M. J. Farabee 
    1. Cell Division: Binary Fission and Mitosis
    2. Cell Division: Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction 
  5. Kimball's Biology Pages
    1. Cell Cycle from Kimball's Biology Pages
    2. Chromosomes from Kimball's Biology Pages
    3. Mitosis from Kimball's Biology Pages
    4. Chromosomes from Kimball's Biology Pages
    5. Meiosis from Kimball's Biology Pages
    6. Crossing Over and Recombination from Kimball's Biology Pages
  6. The Biology Project  an interactive online resource for learning biology, developed at The University of Arizona
    1. DNA basics
    2. Cell Cycle
    3. Mitosis
    4. Meiosis
      1. reproduction
      2. Chromosomes in a Diploid Cell
      3. Meiosis 1 & 2
      4. Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis
      5. Test Yourself 
  7. MIT Biology Hypertext 
    1. Mitosis
    2. Meiosis
  8. North Harris College Mitosis

Chapter Outline

9.1 -- DIVIDING CELLS

  1. DIVISION MECHANISMS 
    1. Mitosis: simple eukaryotic cell division
      1. asexual reproduction 
      2. distributes DNA and cytoplasm from mother to daughter cells (somatic cells in multicelluar organisms)
    2. meiosis:
      1. sexual reproduction in germ cells
    3. Prokaryotic chromosomes and cell division
  2. EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES 
    1. chromatin
    2. chromosomes [fig 9.2]
    3. DNA replication
    4. sister chromatids
    5. centromere
  3. MITOSIS and the CHROMOSOME NUMBER
    1. karyotype
    2. chromosome number
      1. somatic (non-sex) cells: diploid (2N) number
      2. sperm and eggs: haploid (N) number

9.2 THE CELL CYCLE [fig. 9-3] 

  1. generation time
  2. chromosome duplication, nuclear division, and cytokinesis 
  3. interphase
    1. G1 Phase
    2. S Phase
    3. G2 Phase
  4. Mitosis [Fig. 9.4] 
  5. Control of the Cell Cycle
    1. cytoplasmic proteins control activation or inactivation of cell cycle
    2. HeLa cells (Henrietta Lacks), [Fig. 9.11] 

9.3 STAGES OF MITOSIS [fig 9.5] 

  1. division of the eukaryotic nucleus
  2. spindle apparatus:
  3. Mitosis in Animal Cells
    1. Prophase
    2. Transition to Metaphase: [Fig. 9.9] 
    3. Metaphase
    4. Anaphase
    5. Telophase 

9.4 DIVISION OF THE CYTOPLASM 

  1. Cytokinesis in Plant Cells [fig. 9.6]
    1. formation of cell plate, no centrioles or asters; forms new cell wall 
  2. Cytokinesis in Animal Cells 
    1. cleavage furrow [fig. 9.7, 9.8]

9.5 A CLOSER LOOK AT THE CELL CYCLE


10.1 -- MEIOSIS

10.1 COMPARING SEXUAL AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION 

  1. Asexual Reproduction 
    1. Offspring are produced by a single parent
    2.  Genes are identical to parent and siblings
  2. Sexual Reproduction 
    1. each parent contributes one gene for each trait
    2. Alleles
    3. Variation in traits

10.2 HOW MEIOSIS HALVES THE CHROMOSOME NUMBER

  1. Think "Homologues" 
    1. Meiosis: reduces the number of chromosomes (chromosome number) and produces gametes [Fig. 10.2]
    2. Homologous chromosomes: 23 pairs in humans [Fig. 10.3] 
    3. diploid (2N) cells become haploid (N) 
  2. Two Divisions, Not One 
    1. two successive cell divisions --> 4 haploid cells (gamete or spore) 
    2. independent assortment and crossing over. 
    3. fertilization: formation of zygote with full diploid number.

10.3- 10.4 - 10.5 THE STAGES OF MEIOSIS [Fig. 10.4] 

  1. First Meiotic Division (Meiosis I)
    1. homologous chromosomes separate and are distributed to separate nuclei 
    2. Stages
      1.  Prophase I [Fig. 10.5] 
        1. each chromosome consists of two chromatids
        2. synapsis
        3. crossing over [fig. 10.5]
      2. metaphase I 
        1. tetrads line up along spindle
        2. random arrangement of alignment [fig 10.6]
      3. anaphase I
        1. homologous chromosomes separate
      4. telophase I
        1. two haploid cells,  2 chromatids /chromosome
  2. interkinesis
  3. Second Meiotic Division (Meiosis II)
    1. separation of sister chromatids at centromeres 
    2. stages
      1. Prophase II
      2. metaphase II
      3. anaphase II
      4. telophase II 
        1. haploid gamete or spore

10.5 FROM GAMETES TO OFFSPRING 

  1. Position of Mitosis and Meiosis in Various Eukaryotes [fig 10.7] 
    1. Simple eukaryotes can be regularly haploid
    2. Plants (and some algae): alternation of generations: 
      1. Diploid sporophyte plant forms spores by meiosis
      2. Spores divide mitotically to form haploid gametophytes 
      3. Gameophyte plants produce gametes mitotically
      4.  Gametes fuse to form a zygote which forms a sporophyte by mitosis
      5. in higher plants, the haploid gametophyte is small and inconspicuous
    3. Animals
      1. diploid somatic cells
      2. haploid gametes 
      3. Spermatogenesis [fig 10.8]: four sperm
      4. Oogenesis [fig 10.09]:  three polar bodies and an ovum

IMPORTANCE OF MEIOSIS 

  1. independent assortment --> 2N combinations of gametes per parent
  2. (2N)2 possible zygotes 
  3. Humans N=23; 8,388,608 kinds of gametes; 70,368,744,000,000 kinds of zygotes 
  4. Crossing over: vastly increases variability; possibility of genetically different offspring
    1.  with just 1 crossing over per chromosome, there are 4 possible chromatids; 4N possible gametes 
    2. for humans one crossing oveer per chromosome --> 70,368,744,000,000 kinds of gametes; 4.95 X 1027 zygotes

10.6 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS COMPARED


KEY TERMS FOR MITOSIS
 KEY TERMS FOR MEIOSIS

-

Return to:
 

Biology 1306 Syllabus

Baskin Home Page

Biology Home Page