Chapter 16 -- Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering 

  1. Textbook website: http://www.brookscole.com/biology
  2. Gene Technology from Dr. George Johnson's Backgrounders
  3. Cloning from Dr. George Johnson's Backgrounders
  4. On-Line Biology Book by M. J. Farabee 
  5. Kimball's Biology Pages
    1. Gene Therapy from Kimball's Biology Pages
    2. Gene Therapy Update from Kimball's Biology Pages
    3. Transgenic Plants
    4. Human Geneome Project
  6. The Biology Project  an interactive online resource for learning biology, developed at The University of Arizona
    1. DNA Activity
    2.  DNA Profiling
    3. DNA Forensics Problem Set 1
    4. DNA Forensics Problem Set 2
  7. MIT Biology Hypertext 
    1. Recombinant DNA

 


Chapter 16  Outline  -- Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering

Mom, Dad, and Clogged Arteries

  1. Cholesterol forms atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of arteries [Fig. 16.1] 
    1. Defective genes cause familial cholesterolemia. 
    2. Gene therapy a way to genetically alter cells
  2. Natural gene mixing has occurred for 3 billion years
  3. Selective breeding (artificial selection): e.g., corn [Fig. 16.2]
  4. Biotechnology
  5. Recombinant DNA technology
  6. Genetic engineering

16.1 A TOOLKIT FOR MAKING RECOMBINANT DNA 

  1. Restriction Enzymes [Table 16.1]
  2. DNA ligase
  3. gene splicing
  4. plasmids [fig. 16.3]
  5. clones
  6. DNA library [Fig. 16.4]
  7. Reverse Transcriptase
  8. cDNA
  9. cDNA library [fig. 16.5]
  10. amplification.

16.2 PCR, A FASTER WAY TO AMPLIFY DNA 

  1. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [fig 16.6]
  2. Primers
  3. heat resistant DNA polymerase 
  4. Each round of reactions doubles the number of DNA molecules 

16.3 DNA FINGERPRINTS 

  1. Analysis of Cloned Genes 
  2. restriction mapping
  3. radioactive probes
  4. restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) 
  5. "DNA fingerprint" [fig. 16.7]
  6. RFLP's are inherited from each parent in a Mendelian fashion 

16.4 HOW IS DNA SEQUENCED 

  1. DNA sequencing [Fig. 16.8]
  2. automated DNA sequencer separates the sets of fragments by gel electrophoresis.
  3. The "tag" base at the end of each fragment in the set is identified by the laser beam. 

16.5 ISOLATING SPECIFIC GENES 

  1. Creating a gene library
  2. genetic probe
  3. use labeled DNA probes to identify which bacterial colonies have plasmids that have taken up a specific gene [fig. 16.9]

16.6 USING THE GENETIC SCRIPTS 

Genetic Engineering of Bacteria 

  1. Hormones and Similar Types of Proteins
    1. human growth hormone, insulin, anticlotting factors, clotting factors; bovine growth hormone milk 
  2. Organic Chemicals
    1. phenyalenine to make aspartame 
  3. Engineered bacteria to clean up oil spills; etc. 
  4. New antibiotics and antivirals for use against rapidly evolving pathogens 

16.7 DESIGNER PLANTS 

  1. Transgenic Organisms: higher organisms with foreign genes
  2. Regenerating Plants From Cultured Cells
  3. Genetic Engineering of Plants 
    1. vector: Ti (tumor inducing [minus tumor inducing genes]) plasmid
    2. insert genes for pest and herbicide resistance 
    3. production of human hemoglobin, melanin even plastics. 

16.8 GENE TRANSFERS IN ANIMALS 

  1. animals include humans
  2. giant mice [fig. 16.14]; growth hormone in fish; 
  3. human genes for genetic disorders (e.g Alzheimer disease) inserted into mouse embryos to serve as models for study 
  4. "biotech barnyards"
  5. Cloning of animals. 

SEQUENCING GENOMES: THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

Humans DNA has 3.3 x 109  base pairs and 30,000-50,000 protein coding genes

16.9 WHO GETS ENHANCED

 Human Gene Therapy

16.10 SAFETY GUIDELINES 


KEY TERMS FOR CHAPTER 15

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