KEY TERMS

Be able to define, characterize, and/or state the significance of the following

CHAPTER 1

  1. Energy
  2. DNA
  3. Hierarchy
  4. Cell
  5. Multicelled organism
  6. Population
  7. Community
  8. Ecosphere
  9. Biosphere
  10. Reductionism
  11. Emergence
  12. Metabolism
  13. Energy transfers
  14. Photosynthesis
  15. Producers
  16. Consumers
  17. Decomposers
  18. Receptors
  19. Homeostasis
  20. Reproduction
  21. Growth
  22. Inheritance
  23. Variation
  24. Mutation
  25. Adaptative trait
  26. Species
  27. Genus, genera
  28. Family
  29. Order
  30. Class
  31. Phylum
  32. Kingdom
  33. Prokaryote
  34. Monera
  35. Archaebacteria
  36. Eubacteria
  37. Eukaryote
  38. Protista
  39. Fungi
  40. Plantae
  41. Animalia
  42. Evolution
  43. Artificial selection
  44. Natural selection
  45. Hypothesis (-ses)
  46. Prediction
  47. Test
  48. Scientific experiment
  49. Control group
  50. Placebo
  51. Theory
  52. Law

CHAPTER 2

  1. Bioremediation 
  2. Matter
  3. Atom
  4. Element
  5. Trace element
  6. Atomic number
  7. Mass number
  8. Molecule
  9. Isotope
  10. Radiosotope
  11. Nuclear medicine
  12. Energy
  13. Valence
  14. Shell (Bohr) model
  15. Octet rule
  16. Chemical formula
  17. Isomer
  18. Covalent bond
  19. Ionic bond
  20. Ion
  21. Solvent
  22. Hydrogen bond
  23. Water
  24. Polar
  25. Hydrophilic
  26. Nonpolar
  27. Hydrophobic
  28. Universal solvent
  29. Adhesion
  30. Cohesion
  31. Temperature stabilization
  32. Specific heat
  33. Density
  34. pH
  35. Acid
  36. Acid deposition
  37. Base
  38. Neutral
  39. Salt
  40. Buffer

Chapter 3

  1. Organic chemistry
  2. carbon backbone
  3. functional group
  4. hydrophobic
  5. hydrophyllic
  6. Monomer
  7. Sugars
  8. Fatty acids
  9. Amino acids
  10. Nucleotides
  11. Macromolecule
  12. Polymer
  13. Dehydration synthesis
  14. Hydrolysis
  15. Carbohydrate
  16. Monsaccharide
  17. Glucose
  18. Hexose
  19. Pentose
  20. Disaccharide
  21. Sucrose
  22. Polysaccharide
  23. Starch
  24. Glycogen
  25. Cellulose
  26. chitin
  27. Lipid
  28. Fatty acid
  29. Glycerol
  30. Saturated fatty acid
  31. Unsaturated fatty acid
  32. essential fatty acid
  33. Neutral fat
  34. triglyceride
  35. Phospholipid
  36. Cell membrane
  37. Steroid
  38. Cholesterol
  39. wax
  40. Protein
  41. amino acid
  42. Essential amino acid
  43. Enzyme
  44. polypeptide
  45. Primary structure
  46. Peptide bond
  47. Secondary structure
  48. Tertiary strucure
  49. Quaternary structure
  50. glycoprotein
  51. lipoprotein
  52. Denaturation
  53. Nucleotide
  54. DNA
  55. RNA
  56. ATP
  57. coenzyme

Chapter 4

  1. Plasma membrane
  2. Lipid bilayer 
  3. Cell theory
  4. Surface area to volume ratio
  5. Magnification
  6. Resolution
  7. Light microscope
  8. Scanning electron microscope
  9. Transmission electron microscope
  10. Eukaryotic cells 
  11. Nucleus
  12. Nucleoplasm 
  13. Nuclear membrane
  14. Nuclear pores
  15. Chromatin
  16. Chromosome
  17. Nucleolus
  18. Cytoplasm
  19. Ribosome
  20. membrane bound organelles 
  21. Endoplasmic reticulum
  22. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  23. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  24. Golgi bodies
  25. Vesicle
  26. Lysosome
  27. Central Vacuole
  28. Mitochondrion
  29. Chloroplast
  30. Endosymbiosis
  31. Cytoskeleton
  32. Microtubule
  33. MTOC
  34. taxol
  35. colchicine
  36. Centriole
  37. 9 + 2 array
  38. Flagella
  39. Cilia
  40. Microfilament
  41. Contraction
  42. Intermediate filament
  43. adhering junction (spot desmosome)
  44. tight junction
  45. gap junction
  46. plasmodesmata
  47. Cell wall
  48. Prokaryotic cells
  49. Bacteria
  50. Cell wall
  51. Peptidoglycan
  52. Plasmid

Chapter 5

  1. Plasma membrane
  2. Phospholipid bilayer
  3. Hydrophyllic head
  4. Hydrophobic tails
  5. Fluid mosaic model
  6. Glycolipid
  7. Cholesterol
  8. Membrane protein
  9. Glycoprotein
  10. Transport protein
  11. Receptor protein
  12. Recognition protein
  13. Adhesion protein
  14. Permeable
  15. Impermeable
  16. Selectively permeable
  17. Diffusion
  18. Concentration gradient
  19. Osmosis
  20. Solvent
  21. Solute
  22. Osmotic pressure
  23. Bulk flow
  24. Isotonic
  25. Hypotonic
  26. Hypertonic
  27. Turgor pressure
  28. Carrier proteins
  29. Passive transport
  30. Active transport
  31. Na-K pump
  32. Endocytosis
  33. Phagocytosis
  34. Pinocytosis
  35. Exocytosis
  36. Receptor mediated endocytosis

Chapter 6

  1. Metabolism
  2. Energy
  3. Potential energy
  4. Kinetic Energy
  5. Kilocalories
  6. 1st law of thermodynamics
  7. Conservation of energy
  8. 2nd law of thermodynamics
  9. Entropy
  10. Heat
  11. Exergonic
  12. Endogonic
  13. Chemical equilibrium
  14. Metabolic pathway
  15. Linear pathway
  16. Cyclic pathway
  17. Degradative pathway
  18. Oxidation
  19. Synthetic pathway
  20. Reduction
  21. Substrate
  22. Intermediate Product
  23. Enzyme
  24. Induced fit model
  25. Active site
  26. Enzyyme substrate complex
  27. Transition state
  28. Energy of activation
  29. Enzyme optima
  30. Denaturation
  31. Enzyme regulation
  32. Inhibition
  33. Allosteric site
  34. Feedback inhibition
  35. Cofactor
  36. Coenzyme
  37. Vitamin
  38. Metal ion
  39. Electron transport system
  40. Phosphorylation
  41. Pi
  42. ATP
  43. ATP/ADP cycle
  44. Coupled reaction
  45. Antioxidant
  46. bioluminescence

Chapter 7

  1. Photosynthesis
  2. Photoautotroph
  3. Chlorophyll
  4. Electromagnetic spectrum
  5. Chloroplast
  6. Stroma
  7. Grana
  8. Thylakoids
  9. Light dependent reactions
  10. Photosystem II
  11. Photolysis
  12. Electron transport system
  13. Chemiosmotic-phosphorylation
  14. Photosystem I
  15. Light independent reactions
  16. Calvin-Benson cycle
  17. C3 pathway
  18. Carbon dioxide fixation
  19. Rubp
  20. Rubisco
  21. PGAL
  22. Glucose
  23. Photorespiration
  24. Stomata
  25. C4 pathway
  26. Pepco
  27. Bundle sheaf cells
  28. CAM plants

Chapter 8

  1. Aerobic respiration 
  2. Fermentation 
  3. Cellular respiration 
  4. Glycolysis 
  5. Substrate-level phosphorylation 
  6. Pyruvate 
  7. NADH
  8. Mitochondria 
  9. Matrix 
  10. Inner compartment 
  11. Outer compartment 
  12. Transition reaction 
  13. Acetyl coenzyme A
  14. Citric acid cycle 
  15. Krebs cycle 
  16. Electron transport chain 
  17. Cytochromes 
  18. Electron transport phosphorylation 
  19. Alcohol fermentation 
  20. Lactic acid fermentation
  21. Anaerobic electron transport

Chapter 9

  1. Asexual reproduction
  2. Binary fission
  3. Somatic cell
  4. Germ cell
  5. Chromosomes
  6. Homologous chromosomes
  7. Genes
  8. Centromere
  9. Kinetochore
  10. Sister chromatids
  11. Chromosome number
  12. Haploid or n
  13. Diploid or 2n
  14. Cell cycle
  15. Interphase
  16. G1 phase
  17. S phase
  18. G2 phase
  19. histone
  20. Mitosis
  21. Spindle apparatus
  22. Centriole
  23. Prophase
  24. Metaphase
  25. Anaphase
  26. Telophase
  27. Cleavage furrow
  28. Cell plate
  29. Cytokinesis
  30. HeLa cell

Chapter 10

  1. Sexual reproduction
  2. Meiosis
  3. Gamete
  4. Fertilization
  5. Zygote
  6. Meiosis I
  7. Prophase I
  8. Synapsis
  9. Tetrad (bivalent)
  10. Crossing over
  11. Metaphase I
  12. Independent assortment
  13. Anaphase I
  14. Telophase I
  15. Meiosis II
  16. Prophase II
  17. Metaphase II
  18. Anaphase II
  19. Telophase II
  20. egg (ovum)
  21. polar body
  22. sperm
  23. spore