Mammalogy Fall 2009 - Exam 1 


  1. The skull in the picture is from a/an

    1. Morganucodont
    2. Pelycosaur
    3. Cynodont
    4. Multituberculate
    5. Thylacosmilid
  2. The animal above occupied the ____ niche in the _____
    1. Morganucodont
    2. Rodent, Mesozoic
    3. Rodent, Paleozoic
    4. Carnivore, Mesozoic

    5. Carnivore, Paleozoic
    6. Marsupial, Paleozoic
    7. Marsupial, Mesozoic
  3. The animal pictured below is a saber-toothed

    A. Cat from South America

    B. Cat from Australia

    C. Marsupial from South America

    D. Marsupial, Australia

    E. Multituberculate, South America

    F. Mulituberculate, Australia

  4. The animal pictured below is a
    A. Morganucodont

    B. Pelycosaur

    C. Cynodont

    D. Multituberculate

    E. Dinosaur

    5. The animal pictured below is a/an

    A. Hedgehog

    B. Porcupine

    C. Echidna

    D. Tenrec

    E. Eomaia

    6. The Australian Zoogeographic region contains

    A. Australia

    B. New Zealand

    C. New Guinea

    D. Both A and B

    E. Both A and C

    F. A, B, and C

    7. Members of the family of mammals pictured below occur in

    A. North America

    B. South America

    C. Australia

    D. Both A and B

    E. A, B, and C

    8. Two groups of vertebrates that appeared at about the same time during the Triassic period were

    A. Synapsids and diapsids.

    B. Therapsids and dinosaurs.

    C. Dinosaurs and mammals

    D. Monotremes and marsupials

    E. Marsupials and placentals

    9. Most early mammals are thought to have avoided competition with dinosaurs by feeding on

    A. insects during the day

    B. insects at night.

    C. plants at night.

    D. plants during the day.

    E. small vertebrates during the day.

    F. small vertebrates at night.

    10. The type of molars shown

    in the picture below

    A. Sectorial

    B. Carnassial

    C. Tribosphenic

    D. Bunodont

    E. Lophodont

    11. Which zoogeographic province has no endemic families

    12. Which of the following is

    the correct term for the family of the coyote Canis latrans

    13. Which of the following is an example of aposematic coloration?

    14. Platypuses differ from almost all other living mammals (other than echidnas) in possessing

    15. An herbivorous koala has a _____ compared to a carnivorous coyote.


    /shorter/smaller/small intestine

    / large intestine

    / stomach cecum

    16.  A mammal with a well-developed tapetum lucidum is

    17. A monophyletic group is one in which

    18. The __________ allows a mammal to breathe while eating

    19. The figure to the left shows the bottom view of a therapsid skull

    A. Label the feature (A) that most indicates that this fossil is more closely related to mammals than reptiles. (1 point)

    B. What is this feature? (1 point)

    C. Label a feature (C) that is half way between the mammalian and reptilian condition. (1 point)

    D. Why is feature C intermediate between reptiles and mammals (2 points)

    E. Label a feature (E) that is more reptile-like than mammal-like. (1 point)

    F. Why is feature E more reptile-like than mammal-like (2 points)

    20. List three diagnostic [that is, are used to distinguish mammals from other vertebrates] mammalian characters that are associated with (that is, evolved in order to promote) endothermy (3 points)

    21. Explain how each of these three is related to endothermy (6 points)


    22. List from most inclusive to least inclusive the seven fundamental Linnean categories. (5 points)

    Answer ONE of the following (A or >B 14 POINTS (a 14 point answer requires at least 5 independent sentences for a complete answer. Do NOT repeat the question)

    A. Describe the changes in jaw structure and hearing apparatus that accompanied the evolutionary transition from pelycosaurs to mammals.

    B. Why are kangaroos considered ecomorphs to placental animals such as deer? What is the most significant difference between kangaroos and deer that can give kangaroos a major advantage during times of severe drought?


    Answer THREE of the following (10 points each, 30 points total)

    C. What are the diagnostic features of the Order Diprotodontia. List and characterize three FAMILIES in this Order (give features that are characteristic for each family)

    D. What does the fossil record of monotremes and marsupials reveal about past distributions of these groups

    E. What is the Biological Species definition? Why is it a useful definition? What if any drawbacks does it have?

    F. What is semelparous reproduction in mammals? Under what conditions is it advantageous for a mammal species to evolve semelparous reproduction?

    G. What is the trophoblast? What are its major functions? Why are these functions essential for reproduction in eutherians?





    27. What might the figures illustrate? Why is or is not this process important to mammalian evolution?

    28. For the figure in the previous question, briefly discuss why or why not the process illustrated would be relevant to a comparison between marsupial and placental mammals.

    29. ____________ is the best term to describe the figure to the right, which shows a placental mammal and a marsupial mammal.