Mammalogy Fall 2011 - Exam 1 


  1. Which of the following is most true?   Metatherian mammals originated in ______ then dispersed to ______ and then to ______
  2. Of the following anatomical structures, which is homologous to the wing of a bat?
  3. Mammary glands are thought to have been derived from _______ glands
  4. The binomial system of classification was developed by
  5. On which continent(s) have monotreme FOSSILS been found?
  6. Which mammals have a penis that resembles that of a reptile
  7.  A taxonomic key arranges organisms into/according to _____
  8.  Primitive members of which mammal groups have tribosphenic molars?
  9. Addition of an additional cusp to the molar teeth of marsupials is associated with a diet known as  ____ivory.
  10. The greatest adaptive radiation of the mammals occurred during which geologic time interval
  11.   Primitive marsupials such as opossums have ____ premolars and ___ molars
  12. Pelycosaurs are considered to be more closely related to mammals than reptiles, because they 5
  13. Vombatidae have a diet of and are ecomorphs of
  14. Which of the following is the FAMILY of the coyote


  1. In the boxes in the map below, label the two faunal regions which have the least degree of endemism for mammals at the family level (2 points each, 4 points total)
  2. Indicate where Wallace's line is. (2 points)
  3. Indicate where New Zealand is
  4. List from most inclusive (largest) to least inclusive the seven fundamental Linnean categories. (5 points)
  5. Define or describe 2 of the following as applied to information from the Mammalogy course. If you define more, only the first three will be graded. Use examples where appropriate.  8 points (4 points each) 1.A   Biological Species concept 1.B   Paraphyletic taxon 1.C   Cladogram  1.D   Live trapping
  6. Other than mode of reproduction, give three 'reptile-like' characteristics of monotremes (6 points)
  7. Regarding the figure (showing three lower jaws).  For the top midlle and bottom figures answer pelycosaur, therapsid, or mammal to the following
    1. What kind of synapsid is represented by each jaw?
    2. How does each correspond with what is occurring to the bones in the skull?
    3. How does each correspond with what is occurring to the muscles in the skull? (3 points)
    4. Why is this process important to mammalian evolution? (3 points)
  8.  ANSWER ANY SIX of the following questions that have a picture related to the question.   5  points each 30  points total.  I will only grade the first six answers!!!
    1. The tiger below is an example of disruptive coloration.  Explain what it is and how it works (5 points)    
    2. The porcupine below is an example of _________________ coloration.  Explain what it is and how it works (5 points)    
    3.  What is this extinct mammal in this picture?  Why is it of interest to evolutionary biologists? (5 points)  
    4. he figure shows the limb bones from an echidna.  What do they indicate about its way of life.  Explain (5 points)  
    5.  The critter below is a marsupial from South America.  What family does it belong to?  What is unusual about it? (5 points)
    6. The critter below is a marsupial from Australia. It has a rather unusual reproductive strategy for a mammal.  What is it, what causes it, and why is it advantageous especially for the males? (5 points)
    7.  The marsupial below from Australia occupies a very special niche.  What is it, and how is this evident in the skull?
    8. What is the marsupial below? Why did it go extinct in Australia?  Why did it go extinct in Tasmania? (5 points)  
    9. To which marsupial does the digestive tract below belong to? How does it digest food? (5 points)
    10. What is this extinct mammal?  Why is it of interest to evolutionary biologists? (5 points)  
    11. Answer ONE and only two of following.  Use diagrams as needed (10 points)
      1. Why are kangaroos more efficient at high speed locomotion than deer or cheetahs.
      2.  Discuss the steps involved in the processing and digestion of food by kangaroos.  What global advantage could result if we all ate kangaroo meet instead of cattle or deer meat (explain why)?
      3. Why would a fetus need some sort of protection from the mother's immune system? How is it accomplished and how does this affect mode of reproduction and length of gestation in (a) monotremes, (b) marsupials and (c) placental mammals?