Mammalogy Fall 201 - Exam 1 


  1. The goal of systematic studies is to arrange animals _____ groups
  2.  The bones in the wing of a bird and a bat are __ structures
  3. A bifurcated penis occurs in the Family _____
  4. Cynodonts are
  5. Which of the following is most true about living marsupials? Their ancestor originated in: ____ and dispersed to ______
  6. What is greatest environmental advantage to eating kangaroo meat instead of beef?
  7. Mammals first appear in the ____ at the time of the _____
  8. You find a mammal carcass which is missing its head. On examining the GI tract you find a large cecum and many coils and loops of small and large intestines. It most likely ate ___
  9. The Australian Zoogeographic region contains
  10. Which of the following colorations helps a prey species warn predators to not try to eat it?
  11.  Pelycosaurs are considered to be more closely related to mammals than reptiles, because they
  12. Primitive marsupials such as opossums have____ premolars and ____ molars
  13. The hair and skin of mammals are lubricated by ____ glands


  1. In the boxes in the map below, label the faunal regions (4 points). Which has the highest degree of endemism for mammals at the family level (2 points)
  2. List from most inclusive (largest) to least inclusive the seven fundamental Linnean categories. (4 points)
  3. Define or describe 2 of the following as applied to information from the Mammalogy course. If you define more, only the first three will be graded. Use examples where appropriate. 6 points (3 points each)
    a. Secondary palate
    b. Chorioallantoic placenta
    c. Cladogram
    d. Ecomorphy
  4. 18. ANSWER ANY FOUR of the following questions with the animals shown in pictures. 4 pts each 24 pts total. I will only grade the first six answers!!!
    1. What is the family of the animal below. Where is it found? What is the one-word term that describes its specialized diet? What features/anatomical structures does it possess for its specialized diet
    2. What is the family of the animal below. Where is it found? What is the proper two-word term that describes where this individual is found (as shown by the picture) and what it eats. What anatomical specializations does it possess for this diet?
    3. The bat below was used as an example of a characteristic unique to mammals. What is that characteristic? Why is this bat unususal when it comes to this characteristic? For most mammals, including humans, what is a secondary (not the most important) function of having this characteristic?
    4. What is the family of the animal below. Where is it found? What two special features does it have to help it climb?
    5. What is the family of the animal below. Where is it found? Explain what this family is used as a great example of.
    6. What is this extinct mammal? Why is it of interest to evolutionary biologists?
  5. The figure below is the skeleton of an extinct synapsid
    a. To which of the three main groups of synapsids does it belong? (2 points)
    b. What is the most mammal-like feature that can be seen as indicated by the picture? (2 points)
    c. What two bones are involved in articulating the lower jaw with the skull (2 points)
  6. In lecture, on the course web page, and in the book, numbats (two videos were shown, one a cartoon) are used as an example of a species in danger of extinction.
    a. What is the diet of numbats? (2 points)
    b. What specializations do they possess for this diet? (2 points)
  7. For the following questions, use the numbat or some other mammal covered in lecture for this test (such as the thylacine) as an example for full credit. Any other mammal species an be used for half credit.
    a. What is the present distribution of this species? (2 points)
    b. What was the distribution of this species 50 years ago? (2 points)
    c. What are the two specific main causes for its extirpation from its former range? Be specific; don’t just say humans or hunting or climate change, etc. (2 points)
    d. What are the two most important things being done to restore the populations (other than putting on the endangered species list or banning hunting) (2 points)
  8. Answer ONE and only one of the following (10 points)
    a. Why would a fetus need some sort of protection from the mother’s immune system? How is it accomplished and how does this affect mode of reproduction and length of gestation in (a) monotremes, (b) marsupials and (c) placental mammals? Be sure to include a discussion of the role of the trophoblast.
    b. Describe the changes in jaw structure and hearing apparatus that accompanied the evolutionary transition from pelycosaurs to mammals. What other major changes were taking place during this transition from pelycosaur to mammal? What was the advantage of each?
    c. Why do kangaroos have an advantage over ecomorphs such as deer during times of severe drought? Include a discussion of locomotion and reproduction