1. Which of the following bones has been used to identify different species and/or genera of carnivores, especially mustelids
a. Baculum
b. Calcaneum
c. Clavicle
d. Petrosal
e. Astragalus

2. Living members of this family occur ONLY in North and South America
a. Canidae
b. Felidae
c. Mustelidae
d. Procyonidae
e. Ursidae

3. Which of the following is a keystone species
a. Flying lemur
b. Giant anteater
c. Leopard seal
d. Polar bear
e. Sea otter

4. The highest number of endangered mammal species per unit area occurs in
a. Asia
b. Central America
c. North America
d. South America
e. Madagascar

5. A mammal that sheds its horns every year
a. White-tailed deer
b. Impala
c. Okapi
d. Javan rhinoceros
e. More than one of the above
f. None of the above

6. The "rule" that body size increases with latitude
a. Allen's rule
b. Feldheimer's rule
c. Gloger's rule
d. Bergmann's rule
e. Wallace's rule

7. Countercurrent exchange of blood would most likely be found in a/an
a. Arboreal folivore
b. Arctic wolf
c. Gliding frugivore
d. Tropical myrmecophage
e. Cursorial herbivore

8. Which of the following families does not have well-developed carnassial teeth
a. Ursidae
b. Mustelidae
c. Canidae
d. Felidae
e. Herpestidae

9. A double pullied astragalus is characteristic of
a. Artiodactyla
b. Mustelidae
c. Ursidae
d. Felidae
e. Perissodactyla

10. Hippopotami are most closely related to
a. Rhinos
b. Javelina
c. Pigs
d. Tapirs
e. Whales

11. Which of the following families most closely related to cats
a. Otariidae
b. Ursidae
c. Hyaenidae
d. Procyonidae
e. Mustelidae

12. Which of the following terms best describes the ecological relationship among zebras, wildebeest, and gazelles
a. mutualism
b. parasitism
c. commensalism
d. facilitation
e. competition
13. A mongoose relative that is a cat ecomorph can be found in
a. Australia
b. Cuba and Puerto Rico
c. Madagascar
d. South America
e. Tasmania

14. This family of carnivores contains a genus that is specialized for feeding on ants and termites
a. Herpestidae
b. Hyaenidae
c. Procyonidae
d. Ursidae
e. Canidae
15. Which of the following is least correct (or most wrong) about wolves (Canis lupus):
a. Wolves were formerly present in Texas, but have been extirpated
b. Worldwide, they have had large range reductions in the last 200 years
c. Because wolves are on the endangered species list, it is illegal to hunt them
d. Conservation organizations pay ranchers for livestock killed by wolves.

Animal Crackers (2 points each, 22 points total)
16. Identify the Family of the animal to the right.

a. What are the defining characteristics of the family?



b. What its geographic distribution (zoogeographic regions)?


17. Identify the Family of the animal to the right.

a. What are the defining characteristics of the family?



b. What its geographic distribution (zoogeographic regions)?


c. What is the Order that it belongs to?

18. Identify the Family of the animal to the right.

a. What are the defining characteristics of the family?



b. What its geographic distribution (zoogeographic regions)?


c. What is the Order that it belongs to?
19. To the Right are three foot postures (2 points each)
a. What is the proper term for figure a?

b. Name a carnivore family with this posture.


c. What is the proper term for figure b?


d. Name a carnivore family with this posture.


e. What is the proper term for figure c?


f. Name an artiodactyl family with this posture.



The following families include at least some species that are in danger of extinction. For any 2 of these, list general (for the entire family) and specific (to one species of in the family that is considered endangered) causes and practical conservation solutions. (5 points each, 10 points total
g. Felidae (cats)
h. Ursidae (bears)
i. Rhinocerotidae (Rhinos)
j. Eupleuridae (Madagascan carnivores)
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21.


For any 3 of the following pairs, list the most important ways in which they are similar, and list the most important ways in which they are different (6 points each, 18 points total)
a. Seals (Phocidae), Sea lions (Otariidae)
b. Cervidae, Moschidae
c. Tayassuidae, Suidae
d. Mustelidae, Herpestidae
e. Tapiridae, Hippopotamidae
f. Camelidae, Bovidae

22. ________________ and ______________
a. Similarities



b. Differences



23. ________________ and ______________
a. Similarities



b. Differences


24. ________________ and ______________
a. Similarities



b. Differences

Discuss any 2 of the following (5 points each, 10 points total) DO NOT REPEAT ANY INFORMATION that was included in any other question or answer or I will deduct points.
c. Characterize (information such as diagnostic characters, distribution, behavior, reproduction, life history, dietary and locomotor specializations, conservation issues) of a FAMILY of the Order Carnivora that is native to TEXAS. You can use families from any of the above questions if you want.
d. Under what conditions do grazers which are hindgut fermenters have an advantage over foregut fermenters? Explain.
e. Why do seals always undergo delayed fertilization and post-partum estrus?
f. Answer a question of your choice concerning material covered for this test. If you want you can use one of the 5 point questions you did not answer previously. I will decide how many out of 5 points it is worth, for instance anything dealing with white-tailed deer will earn negative points.
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26.