Mammalogy Fall 2013 - Exam 1 


  1. Pelycosaurs and therapsids are examples of _____ groups
  2. The wings of a bird and a bat are __ structures; the bones in the wings themselves are ___ strucures.
  3. The Australian Zoogeographic region contains which of the following places
  4. Monotremes have a fossil record that includes which of the following times and places
  5. Five pairs of sex chromosomes characterize
  6.  Which of the following patterns breaks up the body pattern to hide a predator from its prey or vice versa?
  7. A taxonomic key arranges organisms into/according to
  8. Semelparous refers to animals that
  1. List from most inclusive (largest) to least inclusive the seven fundamental Linnean categories. (4 points)
  2. In the boxes in the map below,
    1.  Label the six major biogeographic regions for mammals (4 points).
    2. Draw the boundaries defining the regions (2 points)
    3. Which has the highest degree of endemism for mammals at the family level (2 points)
    4. Which two have the most number of families in common? (2 points)
  3. The three drawings above represent teeth shown to you in lecture. From the following list, label on the lines below the teeth what kind of synpapsid they belong to (2 points each, 6 points total):
    a. Cynodont
    b. Monotreme
    c. Multituberculate
    d. Pelycosaur
    e. Stem mammal
    f. Tribosphenic mammal
  4. How are each of the following mammalian characteristics related to endothermy (4 points each, 20 points total)
    a. Enucleated red blood cells
    b. Diaphragm muscles
    c. Turbinal bones in the nasal region
    d. Sebaceous glands
    e. Diphyodonty
  5. The skull above left is from a pelycosaur. The skull above right is a therapsid. From what is visible in the pictures
    a. What is the most mammal-like feature visible in the pelycosaur? (2 points)
    b. How has the jaw musculature changed in the therapsid? (4 points)
  7. ANSWER ANY FOUR of the following questions. [There is a picture associated with each of these quwstions] 6 points each ; 24 points total. I will only grade the first four answers!!!
    a. What is the family of the animal below. Where is it found? What is the one-word term that describes its specialized diet? What features/anatomical structures does it possess for its specialized diet?
    b. What is the family of the animal below. Where is it found? Discuss the features/anatomical structures it possesses for its specialized diet?
    c. What is the family of the species below? Where was it found? Why isn’t it found there anymore?
    d. What is the family of the species below? What are the most importan characteristics of this family? What northern hemisphere mammal(s) are ecomorphs (occupy similar niches)?
    e. What two characteristics of this mammal indicate that it belongs to the Order of mammals as the kangaroo? (Hint: one has to do with the teeth; the other with the hind feet) What northern hemisphere mammal(s) are ecomorphs (occupy similar niches)?
  8. Answer Three and only three of the following (5 points each, 15 points total)
    a. What is greatest environmental advantage to eating kangaroo meat instead of beef?
    b. Discuss the two most important function of the trophoblast for reproduction in placental mammals.
    c. What is the role of the secondary palate in mammals?
    d. What are the two most important causes of the extirpation of the numbats from most of their former range. ? Be specific; don’t just say humans or hunting or climate change, etc. What is being done to reverse this decline?
    e. Why are multituberculates of interest to mammalogists?
    f. What can we observe in the jaw of newly born opossums that is similar to what we see in the evolution of mammals from cynodonts?
  9. Answer ONE and only one of the following (10 points)
    a. Describe the changes in jaw structure and hearing apparatus that accompanied the evolutionary transition from pelycosaurs to mammals. What other major changes were taking place during this transition from pelycosaur to mammal? What was the advantage of each?
    b. Why do kangaroos have an advantage over ecomorphs such as deer during times of severe drought? Include a discussion of locomotion and reproduction.