Chapter 4 Mammal Classification

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A MOLECULAR CLASSIFICATION OF THE EUTHERIA

The Atlantogenata is an ancient southern hemisphere radiation that includes the South American Xenarthra and the mainly African Afrotheria. Atlantogenata reflects the hypothesis that the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, which caused the break up of Gondwana, isolated one branch of this lineage in South America and another in Africa during the Cretaceous. 

The Order Cetartiodactyla is based on molecular evidence that hippopotamuses are more closely related to whales than they are to other artiodactyls.  Early cetacean fossils from Pakistan demonstrate that whales are artiodactyls.  Thewissen, J. G. M., E.M. Williams, L.J. Roe, and S.T. Hussain.  2001.  Skeletons of terrestrial cetaceans and the relationship of whales to artiodactyls, Nature 413:277-281.  Philip D. Gingerich, et al.  2001.  Origin of whales from early artiodactyls: Hands and feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan, Science, 293: 2239-2242.

mammal phylogeny

From Wikipedia: "An evolutionary tree of mammals. The tree depicts historic divergence relationships among the living orders of mammals. The phylogenetic hierarchy is a consensus view of several decades of molecular genetic, morphological and fossil inference. Double rings indicate mammalian supertaxa, numbers indicate the possible time of divergences."

Infraclass Eutheria

Group I:  Atlantogenata

Group II  Euarchontoglires

Group III: Laurasiatheria

 


 CLASSIFICATION OF THE MAMMALS

In 1993, Wilson and Reeder divided living  members of the Class Mammalia into three infraclasses, 26 orders, 133 families, 1135 genera, and 4629 species (Wilson and Reeder, 1993).  Since 1993, approximately 10-12 new species have been named annually.  The third edition of Wilson and Reeder recognizes 1229 genera and 5416 species. The numbers below are from the 2005 third edition. Family names end in -idae. The numbers in parentheses indicate the number of genera and species respectively in a family. 

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Class MAMMALIA
 
Infraclass ORNITHODELPHIA
Order MONOTREMATA
Tachyglossidae (2,4) Echidnas
Ornithorhynchidae (1, 1) Duck-billed platypus
 
Infraclass METATHERIA
Order DIDELPHIMORPHIA
Didelphidae (17, 87) New World Opossums
Order PAUCITUBERCULATA
Caenolestidae (3, 6) Shrew or rat opossums
Order MICROBIOTHERIA
Microbiotheriidae (1, 1) Monito del monte
Order DASYUROMORPHIA
Dasyuridae 20, 69) Marsupial mice, native 'cats', Tasmanian devil
Myrmecobiidae (1, 1) Numbat
Thylacinidae (1,1) Tasmanian 'wolf' or 'tiger' [extinct]
Order NOTORYCTEMORPHIA
Notoryctidae (1, 2) Marsupial moles
SYNDACTYLA
Order PERAMELEMORPHIA
Peramelidae (6, 19) Bandicoots and echymiperas
Thylacomyidae (1, 2) Bilbies
Order DIPROTODONTIA
Phascolarctidae (1, 1) Koala
Vombatidae (2, 3) Wombats
Phalangeridae (6, 27)
Cuscuses, brushtail possums
Potoroidae (4, 7)Potoroos, bettongs
Macropodidae (11, 65) Kangaroos, wallabies, pademelons
Hypsiprymnodontidae (1, 1) Musky rat kangaroos
Acrobatidae (2, 2) Feathertail glider, possum
Burramyidae (2, 5) Pygmy possums
Pseudocheiridae (6, 17) Ringtail possums
Petauridae (3, 15) Striped possums, wrist-ringed gliders
Tarsipedidae (1, 1) Honey possum
 
Infraclass EUTHERIA
AFROTHERIA
Order AFROSORICIDA
Tenrecidae (10, 30) Tenrecs
Chrysochloridae (9, 21) Golden moles
Order MACROSCELIDEA
Macroscelididae (4, 15) Elephant shrews
Order TUBULIDENTATA
Orycteropodidae (1, 1) Aardvark
Order HYRACOIDEA
Procaviidae (3, 4) Hyraxes
Order SIRENIA
Dugongidae (2, 2) Dugong [and Stellar seacow]
Trichechidae (1, 3) Manatees
Order PROBOSCIDEA
Elephantidae (2, 3) Elephants
XENARTHRA (now divided in two orders)
Order CINGULATA
Dasypodidae (9, 21) Armadillos
Order PILOSA
Bradypodidae (1, 4) Three-toed sloths
Megalonychidae (1, 2) Two-toed sloths
Myrmecophagidae (2, 3) True anteaters
Cyclopedidae (1,1) Silky anteater
 
Order SCANDENTIA
Tupaiidae (4, 19) Tree shrews
Ptilocercidae (1, 1) Tree shrew
 
Order DERMOPTERA
Cynocephalidae (1, 2) Colugos
 
Order PRIMATES
Strepsirhini
Cheirogaleidae (5, 21) Dwarf and mouse lemurs
Lemuridae (5, 19) Lemurs
Lepilemuridae (1, 8)
Sportive lemurs
Indridae (3, 11) Indrid lemurs, sifakas
Daubentoniidae (1, 1) Aye-aye
Lorisidae (5, 9) Lorises, potto
Galagidae (3, 19) Bushbabies, galagos
Haplorhini
Tarsiidae (1, 7) Tarsiers
Cebidae (11, 56) Marmosets and capuchins
Aotidae (1, 8) Night monkeys
Pitheciidae (4, 40)
Atelidae (5, 24) Howler monkeys
Cercopithecidae (21, 132) Old World monkeys
Hylobatidae (4, 14) Gibbons, siamang
Hominidae(4, 7) Gorilla, chimpanzees, orangutan, humans
 
Order PHOLIDOTA
Manidae (1, 8) Pangolins
 
INSECTIVORA (now divided into two orders, plus the Afrosoricida)
Order ERINACEOMORPHA
Erinaceidae (10, 24) Hedgehogs, gymnures
Order SORICOMORPHA
Solenodontidae (1, 2)Solenodons
Nesophontidae (1, 8) Nesophontids (extinct)
Soricidae (26, 376) Shrews
Talpidae (17, 39) Moles and desmans
 
Order CHIROPTERA
Macrochiroptera
Pteropodidae (42, 186) Old World fruit bats
Microchiroptera
Rhinopomatidae (1, 4) Mouse-tailed bats
Craseonycteridae (1, 1) Kitti's hog-nosed bat
Emballonuridae (13, 51) Sac-winged or sheath-tailed bats
Nycteridae (1, 16) Slit-faced bats Megadermatidae (4, 5)
False vampire bats Rhinolophidae (1, 77) Horseshoe bats
Hipposideridae (9, 81) Trident and leaf-nosed bats
Noctilionidae (1, 2) Fishing bats
Mormoopidae (2, 10) Leaf-chinned bats
Phyllostomidae (55, 160) New World leaf-nosed bats
Natalidae (3, 8) Funnel-eared bats
Furipteridae (2, 2) Smoky bats
Thyropteridae (1, 3) Disk-winged bats
Myzopodidae (1, 1) Sucker-footed bat
Vespertilionidae (48, 407) Common bats
Mystacinidae (1, 2) Short-tailed bats
Molossidae (16, 100) Free-tailed bats
 
Order CARNIVORA
Caniformia
Canidae (13, 35) Dogs
Ursidae (5, 18) Bears, giant panda
Odobenidae (1, 1) Walrus
Otariidae (7, 16) Sea lions
Phocidae (13, 19) Seals
Procyonidae (6, 18) Raccoon, kinkajou, coati
Ailuridae (1, 1) Red panda
Mustelidae (22, 59) Weasels, otters, badgers
Mephitidae (4, 12) Skunks
Feliformia
Felidae (14, 40) Cats
Herpestidae (14, 33) Mongooses
Eupleuridae (7, 8) Madagascar mongooses
Hyaenidae (3, 4) Hyenas, aardwolf
Viverridae (15, 35) Civets, genets
Nandiniidae (1, 1) African palm civet
 
UNGULATA
 
Order ARTIODACTYLA
Suiformes
Suidae (5, 19) Pigs, warthogs
Tayassuidae (3, 3) Peccaries
Hippopotamidae (2, 2) Hippopotamuses
Tylopoda
Camelidae (3, 4) Camels, llamas, vicuna
Ruminantia
Tragulidae (3, 8) Chevrotains
Giraffidae (2, 2) Giraffe, okapi
Moschidae (1, 7) Musk deer
Cervidae (19, 51) Deer, elk, moose
Antilocapridae (1, 1) Pronghorn antelope
Bovidae (50, 143) Antelope, sheep, goats, buffalo, bison, cattle
Order CETACEA
Mysticeti
Balaenidae (2, 4) Bowhead and right whales
Balaenopteridae (2, 7) Rorquals
Eschrichtiidae (1, 1) Gray whale
Neobalaenidae (1, 1) Pigmy right whale
Odontoceti
Delphinidae (17, 34) Dolphins
Monodontidae (2, 2) Narwhal, beluga
Phocoenidae (2, 6) Porpoises
Physeteridae (2, 3) Sperm whales
Platanistidae (1, 2) Ganges and Indus River dolphins
Iniidae (1, 2) Baiji (probably extinct), Franciscana
Ziphiidae (6, 19) Beaked whales
 
Order PERISSODACTYLA
Equidae (1, 7) Horses, asses, zebras
Tapiridae(1, 4) Tapirs
Rhinocerotidae (4, 5) Rhinoceroses
 
GLIRES
Order RODENTIA
Sciurognathi
Aplodontidae (1, 1) Mountain beaver
Sciuridae (51, 278) Squirrels, marmots
Gliridae (9, 28) Dormice
Castoridae (1, 2) Beavers
Geomyidae (6, 40) Pocket gophers
Hetromyidae (6, 60) Pocket mice, kangaroo rats
Dipodidae (16, 51) Jerboas, birch mice, jumping mice
Platacanthomyidae (2, 2) Spiny and soft-furred tree mice
Spalacidae (6, 36) Zokors, bamboo rats, blind mole rats
Calomyscidae (1, 8) Mouse-like hamsters
Nesomyidae (21, 61) Madagascar rats and mice
Cricetidae (130, 681) Voles and mice
Muridae (150, 730) Old World rats and mice
Anomaluridae (3, 7) Scaly-tailed squirrels
Pedetidae (1, 2) Springhaas
Ctenodactylidae (4, 5) Gundis
Hystricognathi
Bathyergidae (5, 16) Mole rats
Hystricidae (3, 11) Old World porcupines
Petromuridae (1, 1) Dassie rat
Thryonomyidae (1, 2) Cane rats
Erethizontidae (4, 16) New World Porcupines
Chinchillidae (3, 7) Chinchillas, viscachias
Dinomyidae (1, 1) Paracana
Caviidae (6, 18) Cavies, guinea pigs, Patagonian hare, capybara
Dasyproctidae (2, 13) Agoutis, acouchis
Cuniculidae (1, 2) Pacas
Ctenomyidae (1, 60) Tuco-tucos
Octodontidae (8, 13) Viscacha rats, coruro
Abrocomidae (1, 10) Chinchilla rats
Echimyidae (21, 90) Spiny rats
Capromyidae (8, 20) Hutias
Myocastoridae (1, 1) Nutria
Order LAGOMORPHA
Ochotonidae (1, 30) Pikas
Leporidae (11, 54) Rabbits, hares



The traditional view of relationships of the Orders of Eutheria.  
        ===========================  Edentata 
     ===|
     |  =========================== Pholidota 
     |
     |           ================== Lagomorpha 
     |        ===|
     |  ======|  ================== Rodentia 
     |  |     |
     |  |     ===================== Macroscelidea 
     |  |
     |  |        ================== Primates 
     |  |     ===|
     |  |     |  ================== Scandentia 
     |  |=====|
     |  |     |  ================== Dermoptera 
     |  |     ===|
     |  |        ================== Chiroptera 
     |  |
     |  |========================== Insectivora 
     |  |
     |  |     ===================== †Creodonta 
--===|  |=====|
     |  |     ===================== Carnivora 
     ===|
        |     ===================== †Condylarthra 
        |     |
        |     |        ============ Artiodactyla 
        |     |  ======|
        |     |  |     ============ Cetacea 
        |     |  |
        |     |  |================= Tubulidentata 
        |     |  |
        |     |  |     ============ Perissodactyla 
        ======|  |     |
              ===|     |  ========= Hyracoidea 
                 |     |  |
                 |     |  |  ====== Proboscidea 
                 ======|  |  |
                       ===|  |===== †Embrythopoda 
                          ===|
                             |===== †Desmostylia 
                             |
                             ====== Sirenia 
† = extinct

 


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