LABORATORY 1 - SKULL and SKELETON

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OBJECTIVES: After this laboratory session you should be able to identify
  1. the bones of the axial skeleton including
  2. the major bones of the skull
  3. the bones of the appendicular skeleton
  4. the various types of vertebrae and the components of a typical vertebra.
  5. various features of bone
THE AXIAL SKELETON
  1. The Skull: dorsal, lateral and ventral views from Animal Diversity Web)
    1. Nasal
    2. Frontal
    3. Parietal
    4. Occipital
      1. Occipital Condyle
      2. Foramen magnum
    5. Lacrimal
    6. Squamosal (=Temporal in humans)
    7. Jugal
    8. Premaxilla
    9. Maxilla
      1. Infraorbital foramen
    10. Palatine
    11. Pterygoid
    12. Auditory Bulla
    13. Alisphenoid
      1. alisphenoid canal
    14. Orbitosphenoid
    15. Dentary
    16. Hyoid Apparatus
  2. The Vertebral Column
    1. Vertebrae
      1. 7 Cervical
        1. Atlas
        2. Axis
      2. 12 Thoracic
      3. 5 Lumbar
      4. Sacrum
      5. Caudal
    2. Vertebral parts
      1. Centrum
      2. vertebral arch and canal
      3. Neural spine
      4. Transverse process
      5. Prezygapothesis
      6. Postzygapothesis
  3. Thoracic cage
    1. Ribs
    2. Sternum
  4. The Appendicular Skeleton
    1. The Pectoral Girdle
      1. Clavicle
      2. Scapula
      3. monotremes possess precoracoids, coracoids, and interclavicle
    2. Forelimb
      1. humerus
      2. radius
      3. ulna
      4. carpal bones
      5. metacarpals
      6. Cannon bone in artiodactyls and perissodactyls
      7. phalanges (singular = phalanx)
    3. The Pelvic Girdle
      1. ilium
      2. ischium
      3. Pubis
      4. epipubic bones in monotremes and marsupials
      5. baculum in most placentals
    4. Hindlimb
      1. femur
      2. patella
      3. tibia
      4. fibula
      5. tarsals
        1. Astragalus
        2. Calcaneum
      6. metatarsals
        1. Cannon bone in artiodactyls and perissodactyls
      7. phalanges (singular = phalanx)

 

Human Skull from Wikipedia.  Illustration by LadyofHats.

 

The skeletal system of a modern horse from Wikipedia.  Image by WikipedianProlific

 

Skeleton of a cat.  From Wikipedia

FEATURES OF BONES

  1. Haversian system
  2. Spongy bone
  3. Compact bone
  4. Epiphysis
  5. Diaphysis (shaft)

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