Order CARNIVORA

CHAPTER 16

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Characters

  1. carnassial teeth (P4/m1) present (Fig. 16-5)
  2. mandibular fossa often strongly C-shaped [Fig. 16-4]
  3. canines strongly curved, pointed
  4. scaphoid and lunar fused [fig 16-2]
  5. os baculum usually well-developed [Figs. ]

PHYLOGENY (Fig. 16-1)

Phylogeny of Living Carnivorans from Wikipedia


Families

Feliformia

  1. Herpestidae  
    • mongooses, meerkats,
    • 33 species from southern Eurasia and mainland Africa
    • Suricata suricatta, Gray Meercat, photograph by Gerald and Buff Corsi, California Academy of Sciences

    Eupleuridae
    1. Malagasy carnivores.  a group of carnivores endemic to Madagascar.  (check out  Ranomafana National Park).  
    2. Cryptoprocta and Fossa were formerly classified as viverrids, the others as herpestids, but molecular evidence now indicates a single origin for the Malagasy Carnivora.
    3. Galidia elegans Malagasy Ring-tailed Mongoose CalPhotos � 2005  Sharon Chester

       

  2. Viverridae  
    • civets, linsangs, genets, binturongs, etc.
    • DNA evidence places the Asiatic linsangs (two species of Prionodon) in their own family (Prionodotidae) as the sister taxon the felids.
    • pictures from wikipedia

         
                                                  binturong

  3. Hyaenidae    

  4. Felidae (cats)

 

Caniformia

  1. Canidae  




    Lycaon pictus, African Hunting Dog,  Gladys Porter Zoo,
    photograph by Will Lukefahr

  2. Mustelidae


    Gulo gulo, the wolverine, photograph by Gerald and Buff Corsi, California Academy of Sciences.



    American Badger, Taxidea taxus,
    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Image Library; Public Domain Images

  3. Procyonidae

  4. Ailuridae

  5. Ursidae  

     Brown Bear, John Nickles, National Image Library;

  6. Otariidae  

    Sea Lions at Haulout, Tom Early, National Image Library;

  7. Odobenidae (walruses)


    Odobenus U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Image Library; Public Domain Images

  8. Phocidae (true seals, earless seals)


    To see a QuickTime AVI video of young Southern elephant seals on the beach at Punta Delgada, Peninsula Valdes, Argentina, click on the above picture


    Southern Elephant Seals (Mirounga leonina) on the beach, Peninsula Valdes, Argentina at Punta Delgada

     

    CARNIVORE ADAPTATIONS

  9. LOCOMOTION
    1. Cursorial adaptations
    2. Cursorial adaptations
    3. Locomotor Categories
    4. Cheetah locomotion
  10. CARNIVORE REPRODUCTION
    1. Spontaneous Ovulation
    2. Induced Ovulation
    3. Delayed Implantation
      1. OBLIGATE DELAYED IMPLANTATION
      2. Bear Reproduction
  11. ADAPTATIONS TO COLD: LARGE BODY SIZE
  12. Increased Effective Insulation
  13. Regional Heterothermy
  14. Bergmann's Rule
  15. Increased Effective Insulation
    1. Insulation in Aquatic Mammals
    2. Increased Effective Insulation
    3. thick subcutaneous fat (blubber) layer [fig 8.8]
  16. Appendages and Regional Heterothermy
  17. Heat Exchange in Leg
    1. rete mirabile and countercurrent heat exchange in extremities
    2. cold blood returning to body is warmed by blood going to extremity
    3. result is to mitigate loss of body heat to environment
    4. Eskimo dogs exposed to cold (-30�C), core temperature = 38°C, toe pads 0°C and tops of feet at 8 C°; similarly for Rangifer. [fig 8.9]
  18. Allen's Rule
  19. Dormancy
  20. Why aren't bears deep hibernators?
    1. Winter Lethargy in Ursus arctos

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