- hoofed mammals.
- Now considered a polyphyletic group.
Molecular evidence indicates
the relationship of tenrecs, golden moles, elephant
shrews, aardvarks, and tethytheres ("Paenungulata" - elephants, sirenians, and
hyraxes) into a superorder Afrotheria. Tethytheres and possibly aardvarks had been considered to be
Ungulates should now be restricted to
perissodactyls and artiodactyls (including the whales).
The Order Cetartiodactyla is based on molecular evidence that hippopotamuses are
more closely related to whales than they are to other artiodactyls.
Early cetacean fossils from Pakistan demonstrate that whales are
- perissodactyls and artiodactyls from Dr. Monte L.Thies, Sam Houston State University,
with a good discussion of cursorial and feeding adaptations and African Grazing
Hoofed Mammals by Christine Janis and Peter Jarman; with a good
discussion of hindgut and foregut fermentation.
- Order CONDYLARTHRA
- dugongs, sea cows, manatees
- Horses,Tapirs, Rhinceroses
- pigs, hippos, camels, deer, giraffes, cattle